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Paying to Play: Health Care Companies, Campaign Contributions and Medicare Drug Discount Cards

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The Bush administration has promised the new Medicare drug discount card program will save all seniors money on their medicines. Yet, according to the Boston Globe, the White House allowed drug card industry CEO David Halbert (a longtime Bush campaign contributor) to be involved in the original crafting of the discount card program. The result is a program that enriches drug card companies at the expense of consumers. The cards do not guarantee any price savings for consumers, allowing drug card companies to change their "discounts" at any time in order to maximize profits.

Now, as the program is set to start, the White House has once again looked to its top campaign contributors in deciding which companies it approved to administer the cards. All told, the 73 companies selected gave President Bush and conservatives in Congress more than $5 million since 2000. Of those 73 companies approved by the administration, 20 (almost one third) have been involved in fraud charges. Those 20 companies made more than 60% of the total contributions to Bush and conservatives by drug card companies, calling into question whether the administration overlooked those companies' records because of their financial ties to the Bush Campaign.

COMPANIES GAVE MORE THAN $5 MILLION TO BUSH/CONSERVATIVES: The 73 health care companies approved to administer the Medicare drug discount card programs gave President Bush and conservatives in Congress a total of more than $5 million in hard money, soft money, and PAC contributions.

TWENTY COMPANIES INVOLVED IN FRAUD APPROVED FOR DRUG CARD PROGRAM: Twenty health care companies approved by the Bush administration to administer the Medicare drug discount cards have been involved in fraud charges, with many being forced to pay fines to federal and local governments because of their behavior.

TWENTY COMPANIES INVOLVED IN FRAUD MADE OVER 60% OF CONTRIBUTIONS: The 20 companies involved in fraud charges represent less than a third of all the approved companies. Yet, they made more than 60% ($3.1 million) of the total campaign contributions from approved drug card companies to President Bush and conservatives in Congress.

SEVEN "PIONEERS" LINKED TO COMPANIES APPROVED FOR DRUG CARD PROGRAM: Seven executives/lobbyists whose companies were approved for the drug card program raised or pledged to raise $100,000 or more for the Bush Campaign They are Wellcare executives Todd S. Farha and David Hart; Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida executive Michael R. Hightower; United Health Group CEO William McGuire; Medco President Alan Lotvin; Express Scripts board member Samuel Skinner; and PacifiCare lobbyist Tom Loeffler.

THREE PIONEERS AT APPROVED COMPANIES THAT WERE INVOLVED IN FRAUD: Medco, Express Scripts and PacifiCare have all been involved in fraud charges, yet were approved by the Bush administration to participate in the Medicare discount drug card program. Medco is headed by Bush Pioneer Alan Lotvin, Express Scripts includes Bush Pioneer Samuel Skinner on its board, and PacifiCare's top lobbyist was Tom Loeffler.

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY: The analysis evaluated companies' campaign contributions to President Bush and conservatives in Congress since (and including) the 2000 election cycle. The analysis evaluated those companies' involvement in fraud charges during the same time period. For purposes of the study, companies "involved in fraud" were either found guilty of federal or state fraud, settled federal or state fraud charges or are currently under investigation for fraud at the state or federal level.

Seven health industry executives whose companies were approved for the drug card program have raised or pledged to raise $100,000 or more for the Bush Campaign. Three of those these "Pioneers" linked to companies that have been involved in fraud charges, yet were still approved for the drug card program.

Three Pioneers Linked to Companies Involved in Fraud Yet Approved for Drug Card Plan

  • Alan Lotvin, President of Medco, a company which recently agreed to pay $29 million to settle allegations by 20 states that it pressured doctors to switch patients' medications to benefit its bottom line. Lotvin "helped throw a $100,000 fund-raiser for President George W. Bush a few weeks after the business won approval to offer a drug card. Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson headlined the event." [Source: AP, 4/27/04 & 5/11/04]
  • Samuel Skinner, member of the board of directors of Express Scripts, a company "the New York attorney general has subpoenaed for information relating to the company's contracts and business practices." [Source: AP, 5/11/04; St. Louis Business Journal, 6/20/03]
  • Tom Loeffler, top lobbyist for PacifiCare, a company that recently was forced "to pay the federal government $87.3 million to settle alleged violations of the federal False Claims Act." The fine was "the largest civil settlement ever assessed on a company providing health coverage to federal employees." [Source: Modern Healthcare, 4/15/02; Orange County Register, 4/13/02]

Other Pioneers Heading Drug Card-Approved Companies

  • Todd S. Farha, CEO of Wellcare Health Plans, Inc= [Source: Public Citizen]
  • David Hart, Finance Director of Wellcare [Source: Public Citizen]
  • Michael R. Hightower, Vice President of Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida [Source: Public Citizen]
  • William McGuire, CEO of United Health Group, [Source: Public Citizen]

Out of the 73 drug card companies approved by the Bush Administration to participate in the Medicare discount card program, at least 20 have been involved in fraud charges. These charges include bilking Medicare and overcharging consumers. These same companies have given President Bush and conservatives in Congress more than $3.1 million – money that may have coerced the administration to ignore fraud records when approving the companies for participation in Medicare.

AdvancePCS Health, L.P.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,250
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $84,500
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • AdvancePCS Refuses to Cooperate With Federal Fraud Investigation: "AdvancePCS, which posted $13 billion in revenue last year from processing the prescription-drug claims of 75 million Americans, is fiercely resisting attempts by the Justice Department's assistant U.S. attorney in Philadelphia to interview some of its employees and comb through potentially thousands of its internal e-mails. The assistant U.S. attorney, James Sheehan, wants to know what deals AdvancePCS is making with big pharmaceutical companies in return for steering millions of Americans to certain prescription drugs and not others." [Source: Wall Street Journal, 8/1/02]

Aetna Health Management, LLC

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $22,050
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $183,650
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $826,750
  • Aetna Fined by Texas for Fraud: "Aetna is among the 21 insurers fined by Texas Department of Insurance Commissioner Jose Montemayor this year for allegedly violating the state's rules on prompt payment of claims." [Source: San Antonio Business Journal, 1/4/02]

    Aetna Agreed to Pay $470 Million For Defrauding Doctors: "Aetna Inc. has agreed to a $470 million settlement with more than 700,000 doctors who alleged in a class-action lawsuit that insurers wrongly cut payments to them and interfered with their recommended treatment for patients." [Source: CBS News, 5/22/03]

Anthem Health Plans of Kentucky, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $18,400
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $115,650
  • Anthem Fined By Federal Government for Fraud: "Anthem Insurance Co. has agreed to pay the federal government $74 million to settle a Medicare fraud case involving its Connecticut operations. The settlement by the Indianapolis-based health insurer is the second-largest in an ongoing government crackdown against Medicare contractors." [Source: Indianapolis Star, 12/9/99]

Caremark Advantage, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $3,000
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $12,500
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $10,000
  • Caremark Paid $7.5 Million For Medicare Fraud: "A settlement agreement in the amount of $7.5 million was reached last month between Caremark Rx, Inc. [formerly MedPartners, Inc., one of the nation's major physician practice management companies]…The settlement was for false claims submitted to Medicare by a subsidiary, AmCare, Inc. [a home health agency that MedPartners acquired in 1997]. In 1999, Caremark made a voluntary disclosure upon learning that AmCare may have submitted $5 million in false claims to Medicare." [Source: Health Care Fraud & Abuse, 2/13/03]

Express Scripts, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $57,999
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $50,000
  • Express Scripts Subpoenaed By New York Attorney General: "Express Scripts announced that the New York attorney general had subpoenaed the company for information relating to the company's contracts and business practices." [Source: St. Louis Business Journal, 6/20/03]

First Health Services Corporation

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $500
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $7,000
  • First Health Agreed to Pay $13 Million For Medicaid Fraud: The D.C. Medicaid fraud control unit and U.S. attorney's office in Washington, D.C. sued First Health Services Corp. for alleged false claims. The Downers Grove, Ill.-based company, which processes D.C. Medicaid claims, forked over $13 million to settle the case (RMC 5/8/03, p. 3). Prosecutors accused First Health of entering incorrect eligibility data in its computer system and failing to fix the data even after being notified of the errors. [Source: Report on Medicare Compliance, 6/19/03; WP, 4/24/03]

Health Net of NY

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Health Net of New York Fined $500,000 By State: "Health Net Inc.'s New York subsidiary has been hit with a $500,000 fine and has agreed to refund $5 million after a random state audit found the insurer had shortchanged policyholders." [Source: Los Angeles Business Journal, 4/19/04]

Highmark, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,100
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $58,000
  • Highmark Paid $1.5 Million Federal Fine for Medicare Fraud: "Highmark Inc. has agreed to pay $1.5 million to the federal government to settle potential civil complaints that one of its divisions altered Medicare files and claims information from 1992 through 1994 to improve its performance evaluation as a Medicare contractor." [Source: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 4/22/04]

Horizon Healthcare Services, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $500
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Horizon Paid Fines for Medicaid Fraud: "The former owners and manager of two Massachusetts nursing homes that specialized in the care of brain-injured patients have agreed to a $1.5 million settlement to resolve separate allegations of patient abuse and neglect, improper transferring and billing of residents, and Medicaid fraud, Attorney General Tom Reilly announced on April 22… Under the terms of the settlement, Horizon/CMS Healthcare Corporation, formerly known as Horizon Healthcare Corporation, a subsidiary of HealthSouth Corporation of Alabama, the former owner of the nursing homes, has paid $625,000 in penalties, associated costs and consumer aid to the Commonwealth. In a separate agreement with the MFCU, Horizon/CMS also paid $150,000 in restitution to the Massachusetts Medicaid Program." [Source: Medicaid Fraud Report, 4/03]

Humana Health Plan, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $228,843
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $95,300
  • Humana Paid $14.5 Million in Federal Medicare Fines: "Humana Inc. will pay Medicare $ 14.5 million to settle allegations that its HMO overbilled the government throughout the 1990s, in the first such case involving a managed care company. The settlement on Tuesday covers Humana overbilling for thousands of patients — mostly in South Florida — who were wrongly categorized for Medicare payment purposes, said the U.S. Attorney's Office in Miami, which was involved in the investigation." [Source: Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel, 6/7/00]

    Humana Found Liable For Fraud In Dropping Coverage: "It was just two weeks before Christmas when the letter arrived at Mark and Barbara Chipps' house: Insurance would no longer cover the extensive therapy their 4-year-old daughter needed for her cerebral palsy… Palm Beach Circuit Judge James Carlisle already found Humana liable for breach of contract, fraud and bad faith after the company failed to respond to repeated court orders to turn over documents. An appeals court in August upheld the default order against Humana." [Source: AP, 10/6/99]

Humana Medical Plan, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Humana Medical Plan Paid $8 Million in Fines for Medicare/Medicaid Fraud: "Attorney General Butterworth announced on June 28 that one of the nation's leading health maintenance organizations will pay nearly $ 8 million to settle allegations that it charged both Medicaid and Medicare for the same services. Without admitting wrongdoing, Humana Medical Plan Inc. also agreed to revise its billing procedures to ensure that such double billing does not occur in the future. The allegations concern a class of Medicaid recipients who were dually enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare managed care plans. Dual enrollment is prohibited by law, and an investigation by the Attorney General's Medicaid Fraud Control Unit revealed that between July 1, 1992 and December 31, 2000, Humana received duplicate payments from both Medicare and Medicaid for the same individuals. Those payments were made on a monthly, per capita basis." [Source: Medical Fraud Report, 6/01]

Independence Blue Cross

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,500
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,100
  • Independence Blue Cross Forced to Settle Lawsuit For Misleading Doctors: "A Philadelphia judge has approved a class-action settlement between Independence Blue Cross and the Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society… In an opinion dated April 22, Common Pleas Court Judge Albert W. Sheppard Jr. concluded that doctors had been misled by the company's publicity campaign last summer." [Source: Philadelphia Inquirer, 4/26/04]

Lovelace Health Plan, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $1,500
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Lovelace Pays $24.5 Million in Fines for Medicare Fraud: "Lovelace Health Systems of Albuquerque will pay $24.5 million to settle a Medicare fraud probe – the country's highest single-hospital Medicare cost-reporting settlement ever…The civil settlement resolves allegations that Lovelace submitted fraudulent claims from 1988-98 in Medicare cost reports. Cost reports allow hospitals to be reimbursed by federally funded health insurance programs such as Medicare and Medicaid." [Source: Albuquerque Tribune, 12/5/02]

Medco Health Solutions, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,250
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $28,500
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $300
  • Medco To Pay $29 Million to 20 States For Fraud Charges: "In a case that could alter how prescriptions are filled, the nation's largest pharmacy benefits manager will pay $29 million to settle allegations by 20 states that it pressured doctors to switch patients' medications to benefit its bottom line. Medco Health Solutions Inc., accused of 'unfair or deceptive acts and practices' that violated the states' trade practices laws, also agreed Monday to new disclosures when it seeks to switch a patient's medication." [Source: AP, 4/27/04]

    Medco Charged for Defrauding Federal Employees Health Plan: "Last June, the U.S. attorney's office in Pennsylvania charged Medco Health Solutions Inc. of defrauding the federal employees' health plan." The government action, based on a four-year inquiry, "accused Medco's mail-order unit of promoting the use of expensive drugs, charging for pills that were not delivered and favoring expensive drugs made by Merck & Company, which owns Medco, over less costly products." [Source: Gannett News Service, 4/14/04; NY Times, 6/24/03]

PacifiCare of California (Pacificare Health Systems)

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,700
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $205,750
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $223,800
  • PacifiCare Paid $87.3 Million for Fraud: "PacifiCare Health Systems agreed to pay the federal government $87.3 million to settle alleged violations of the federal False Claims Act. The settlement resolves allegations by the U.S. attorney's office in Washington that from 1990 to 1997, PacifiCare and its predecessor companies, FHP International and TakeCare Corp., submitted inflated claims for insurance payments based on rates that did not conform with regulations for federal employees." The fine was "the largest civil settlement ever assessed on a company providing health coverage to federal employees, the U.S. Justice Department said." [Source: Modern Healthcare, 4/15/02; Orange County Register, 4/13/02]

Rocky Mountain Health Plans

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $25,000
  • Rocky Mountain Health Paid $1.5 Million in Criminal Fines for Fraud: Rocky Mountain Health Care Corp. "pleaded guilty to a single count of criminal conspiracy to obstruct a federal audit and resolved the civil charges without admitting wrongdoing. They agreed to pay $12 million to settle the civil charges and $1.5 million to settle the criminal charge." [Source: Modern healthcare, 8/2/99]

Tenet Choices, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $35,300
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $133,724
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $161,225
  • Tenet Paid $54 Million in Fines for Fraud: "Tenet Healthcare Corp., California's largest hospital chain, agreed Wednesday to pay $54 million to settle government allegations that two doctors at its hospital in Northern California performed numerous unnecessary heart surgeries." [Source: LA Times, 8/7/03]

    Tenet Sued by Federal Government for Medicare Fraud: "Tenet Healthcare Corp., the nation's second-largest for-profit hospital chain, was sued for Medicare fraud last week by the Justice Department. The Santa Barbara-based chain, which operates Alvarado Hospital Medical Center in San Diego, is accused of bilking the government of $115 million between 1992 and 1998." [Source: San Diego Union Tribune, 1/17/03]

    Tenet Paid $4 Million for Medicare Fraud in Florida: "Tenet Healthcare Corp. laid to rest another of the questions surrounding it Monday when it agreed to pay $4.15 million plus interest to settle allegations that five of its hospitals in Florida had overbilled Medicare in the mid-1990s… But the nation's No. 2 hospital chain, based in Santa Barbara, remains surrounded by a cloud of allegations of possible impropriety related to its aggressive billing." [Source: San Francisco Chronicle, 2/11/03]

    Tenet Paid $8.2 Million In Medicare Fraud Case: "Tenet agreed to pay $8.25 million to settle civil claims arising from the payment of Medicare claims involving the transfer of patients from hospitals to other facilities, such as nursing homes." [Source: AP, 3/25/04]

    Tenet Under Two New Federal Investigations: "Tenet announced today that the company has been informed of two unrelated new inquiries being conducted by federal investigators in Southern California. The company said it has received a voluntary document request from the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles seeking, among other items, information from 1993 to the present about coding and billing practices…Separately, the company has received a voluntary request for documents seeking information about the relationship between Tenet's Centinela Hospital Medical Center in Inglewood, Calif., and Allied Homecare Consultants Inc., an independent home health placement service." [Source: Tenet Press Release, 4/14/04]

United Healthcare of Florida, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000:
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000:
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000:
  • United Health Care of Florida Pays $4 Million in Fines for Medicare/Medicaid Fraud: "Attorney General Butterworth announced on September 3 that United Health Care of Florida, Inc., one of the nation's leading health maintenance organizations, will pay $ 4 million to settle allegations that it charged both Medicaid and Medicare for the same services. The allegations concern a class of Medicaid recipients who were dually enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare managed care plans." [Source: Medicaid Fraud Report, 9/02]

UPMC Health Benefits, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $1,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $550
  • UPMC Pays $1.5 Million in Medicare Fraud Fines: "The UPMC Health System has agreed to pay $1.5 million to the federal government to settle charges that two of its hospitals billed Medicare for surgical procedures using medical devices that had not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration." [Source: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 6/5/02]

WellPoint Pharmacy Management

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $26,141
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $467,500
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000:
  • WellPoint Pays $9 Million Medicare Fraud Fines: Last May, Wellpoint "agreed to pay $9.25 million to settle charges that its Blue Cross subsidiary in California defrauded Medicare. The company falsified audit information so that the government would believe that it audited more Medicare claims and cost reports than it actually did." [Source: Ascribe Newswire, 5/22/03]

AmeriHealth HMO, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,500
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,000
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $2,000

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $5,000
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $75,350
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $55,470

California Physicians' Service d/b/a Blue Shield of California

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $5,100
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $211,000

CarePlus Health Plans, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $300

Community Care HMO, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $6,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Computer Sciences Corporation

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $750
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $100,250
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $32,000

Elder Health Maryland HMO, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Elder Health of PA, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $300
  • Fraud record: $0

Group Health Incorporated

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $1,400
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $7,275
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Health Net Life Insurance Company (Health Net Inc.)

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $23,250
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $214,852

HealthPartners

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $3,200
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Independence Blue Cross, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $4,500
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $21,000

Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $20,300
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Long Term Care Pharmacy Alliance, LLC

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0

Partners National Health Plans of NC, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $250
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Preferred Care Partners Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Prime Therapeutics, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $3,000
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0

Quality Health Plans, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $1,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $500

Sierra Health and Life Insurance Company, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $10,950
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $62,000
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $82,000

UPMC Health Plan

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $2,000
  • PAC money contributions to GOP since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to GOP since 2000: $550

United Healthcare Insurance Company (UnitedHealth Group)

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $61,250
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $407,000
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $489,871

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $7,400
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

Well Care HMO, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $8,500
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $300

WellCare of New York, Inc.

  • Hard money contributions to Bush since 2000: $23,000
  • PAC money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0
  • Soft money contributions to Bush since 2000: $0

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