Lawyers play a vital role in U.S. society. In law school and throughout their careers, they hone an intimate understanding of the law as well as the ability to craft policy, serving as mediators between the law and everyday individuals.
Lawyers and law students who hold Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) are therefore in a unique position. DACA grants individuals temporary stays of deportation and U.S. work authorization. However, while DACA protections allow young immigrants without legal status to pursue legal careers, they do not ensure that the path is easy. In addition to the typical barriers that aspiring lawyers must overcome, DACA recipients face the obstacle of seeking admission to a bar with residency restrictions—on top of the inherent daily uncertainty that comes with not having legal status.
The personal lives of lawyers and law students with DACA are rooted in the broader immigrant community in the United States. The Trump administration’s hard-line stance on immigration has made life difficult for this community and, by extension, for the lawyers and law students with DACA. Since President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he and his administration have aggressively focused on stripping protections from immigrants who are permitted to live in the country. The administration has also amplified deportation efforts, increasing the number of individuals who are prioritized for deportation.1 In the midst of this crackdown, DACAmented lawyers and law students hold a deep understanding and specialized knowledge of the legal system, a system that is the bedrock of the U.S. immigration code. Many of these individuals serve as advocates and voices of justice for those who may not otherwise have access to such representation, often choosing to work with underserved communities.
Through interviews with 33 DACA recipients pursuing legal careers, this issue brief—a collaboration between the Penn State Law Center for Immigrants’ Rights Clinic and the Center for American Progress—highlights their complex experience: the uncertainty they face, their overwhelmingly positive and determined attitudes, their coping mechanisms, their self-perceived privilege, and the futures they are planning for themselves.2 The brief then provides policy recommendations that would help support them, and others like them, in their education and chosen profession.
The termination of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
On September 5, 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the end of DACA, claiming that the program constituted an executive overreach.3 DACA recipients whose protections were set to end between October 5, 2017, and March 5, 2018, were given one month to apply to renew their status, and Congress was given six months to act on a legislative solution. President Trump followed the announcement with a tweet in which he claimed that he would “revisit” the issue if Congress failed to pass a legislative solution.4
To date, several federal courts across the United States have rejected the administration’s effort to terminate DACA. Since the announcement, two federal courts have issued injunctions ordering the administration to continue processing DACA renewals.5 A third court ordered the administration to additionally process new DACA applications, but the judge stayed the order for 90 days to give the administration a chance to provide a reasoned explanation for why it ended DACA.6 On the other hand, Texas and six other states have filed a lawsuit in the Southern District of Texas challenging DACA; the lawsuit is currently pending before the same judge who blocked a 2014 expansion of DACA and a similar form of protection for parents of U.S citizens and permanent residents.7
Despite the very real consequences of ending DACA, as of June 2018, Congress has not passed legislation to protect this population. Meanwhile, the White House has signaled its unwillingness to sign legislation unless it includes sweeping immigration enforcement measures and limits on future legal immigration.8 Notwithstanding the fact that DACA recipients are currently able to renew their protections, thousands of individuals have already lost their DACA, exposing them to detention and deportation.9 Since the Trump administration took office, several DACA recipients have been arrested and detained, including one instance when a judge ruled that U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) lied in court about an individual’s gang membership in effort to deport him.10 In short, DACA recipients’ lives in the United States hang in the balance.
Interviews with DACAmented lawyers and law students
This brief focuses on law students and lawyers with DACA because these individuals are intimately familiar with how policy—including immigration policy—works. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in personal, professional, and familial contexts, and certain trends were observed in all of these areas. Among those interviewed, many shared a sense of uncertainty, wide-ranging emotions, and a view that having an understanding of the law and DACA was both a privilege and a responsibility.
Primarily, interviewees expressed that, since President Trump took office, they have been uneasy about most aspects of their daily lives. In the month before the announcement ending DACA, one participant—identified here as YK—described living with anxiety, checking every day to see whether DACA would be taken away:
As YK explains, participants were less concerned during the Obama administration. This makes sense given that the previous administration created the DACA program and established a series of immigration enforcement priorities that focused resources on people who posed a threat to public safety or arrived more recently to the country.12 And the feeling of uncertainty described by interviewees has presumably become more persistent following the termination of DACA. Just weeks after the Trump administration ended DACA, another interviewee, Ari, shared what it was like to see his protections slipping away:
Since President Trump took office, for a large part of the immigrant community, this sense of anxiety and fear has grown. Immigrants are facing unthinkable choices, both for themselves and for their children. Near the border in Texas, parents have been forced to choose between taking their children for emergency medical treatment, thereby exposing themselves and their children to arrest or deportation, or forgoing necessary treatment altogether.14 In many cities around the country, immigrants—particularly within Latino communities—are reporting fewer crimes and are more regularly refusing to cooperate with prosecutors out of fear that interacting with local police will bring them to the attention of federal immigration enforcement authorities.15 Such prolonged exposure to stress leaves immigrants, their children, and their extended communities exposed to negative repercussions that affect their daily lives.16
Some interviewees maintain a positive attitude with regards to DACA; others seem apathetic; and some express a range of attitudes throughout the day. One interviewee, MM, described this emotional rollercoaster:
Interviewees discussed developing coping mechanisms in order to deal with the complicated emotions that they experience. Many rely heavily on their support networks—whether they be family, friends, or faith. Others have found activities, such as journaling or exercise. A few have even reported that they simply avoid thinking about their futures too much. These feelings and coping techniques are similar to those reported in other research on DACA recipients and the unauthorized community more broadly.18 While interviewees were overwhelmingly determined to find a way to pursue their professional careers in the United States, those who did not actively seek support tended to be less hopeful about the future and relatively less motivated to map out future plans.
The emotions described by many participants are not unique to DACA recipients who are lawyers or law students. Yet this group’s training and professional navigation of the legal system can deepen its understanding of the immigration process. Given that a main focus of lawyers is understanding complex policy and interpreting legal code, this is a congruency worth considering.
DACA recipients commonly express that the protections can be both a privilege and a burden.19 With work permits and access to driver’s licenses, individuals with DACA have opportunities that other unauthorized immigrants do not. However, this often translates to greater familial responsibility. Furthermore, pursuing a law degree—and thus having an advanced understanding of the law and the legal system—gives some participants a greater sense of privilege and societal responsibility than the wider DACA and unauthorized immigrant community might feel.
Many of the lawyers and law students interviewed in this brief shared that they play an important role in disseminating news to their families and communities, and some use their knowledge of the law to build contingency plans for their own futures as well as those of their families. One participant, Esmerelda, describes this conflicting privilege and burden:
Overall, these interviews are further evidence of the need for a permanent solution in the form of a pathway to citizenship to protect DACA recipients and Dreamers. Participants in this study are making efforts to ensure that an end to DACA will not mean the end of their professional goals, but their immigration status—especially considering the Trump administration’s decision to end DACA—places obstacles in the way of these aspirations. While they remain committed to their futures in the United States, and their professional goals remain largely the same, the rescission of DACA has left them vulnerable.
Since the Trump administration announced the end of DACA, the program’s beneficiaries have been living in perilous legal limbo. Only Congress can pass a federal solution, such as the Dream Act, to alleviate the uncertainty of their futures.21 Although Congress has considered several other legislative solutions—which range in scope—that would help DACA beneficiaries or Dreamers more broadly, thus far, it has failed to enact any proposals.22
To fill this void, there are several things that state legislative bodies and educational institutions can do to help law students and lawyers with DACA as well as DACA recipients more broadly.
In-state tuition and financial aid
A chief concern among interviewees was how to finance their education and provide for themselves. Because DACA recipients obtain work authorization only as a result of being granted this protection, by losing DACA, they would lose their ability to work lawfully, which is essential for many DACA recipients enrolled in college and graduate school.
Unauthorized immigrant residents can pay in-state tuition in more than 20 states.23 While they are ineligible for federal financial aid, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, and Washington extend some aid to these students.24 In four states, losing DACA would affect students’ ability to pay tuition at an in-state rate.25 These state legislatures should consider legislation that permits DACA beneficiaries to continue to pay in-state tuition after the expiration of DACA protections as well as legislation that allows all unauthorized immigrants who otherwise meet state residency requirements to pay in-state tuition. All states that do not extend financial aid to unauthorized immigrant students, regardless of their DACA, should consider doing so, provided the students meet the residency requirements.
Even in the absence of new legislation, private universities have more flexibility than public universities when it comes to providing financial aid and reducing the cost of living expenses for DACA recipients and unauthorized students who do not currently qualify for assistance; they should make this aid accessible.26
Mental health support for students
Due to the constant and often overwhelming unpredictability of their situation, it is crucial that DACA recipients have access to mental health services. Educational institutions can do more to provide support for DACA students. For example, schools should prominently advertise available mental health services, such as counseling, focusing on students who may not be aware they are eligible for them, students who may not think they are particularly good candidates, and students who are unaware that such services exist. Students with DACA may fit into any of these groups. In order to maximize the usage of these services, they must be sensitive to students’ different cultural realities and to the specific experiences of unauthorized students.27 Schools with limited resources for these services should partner with community-based organizations that can provide them.
In the absence of congressional action, DACA recipients could benefit from consultations with immigration attorneys who could help them to identify whether they have other avenues to legal status. Some DACA recipients may qualify for family- or employment-based sponsorship; visas protecting victims of domestic violence or other crimes; or other relief. Previous research estimated that 14 percent of individuals eligible for DACA were eligible for some other permanent visa as well.28 Some law school immigration clinics offer such screenings for free or for a minimal charge. Schools could also establish a relationship with local immigration lawyers or legal service providers in order to conduct such screenings for enrolled students and alumni.
Admission to a state bar is necessary to practice law.29 If a state requires its attorneys to demonstrate permanent residency or citizenship, regardless of DACA, law school graduates without legal status will not be admitted. Only states can ensure that individuals with DACA are eligible to practice law, and they should pass legislation that admits eligible DACA recipients to the bar. Certain states—including but not necessarily limited to Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, and Pennsylvania—have permitted DACA recipients to the bar. However, upon the expiration of their DACA protections, they will again be shut out of the profession.30
The American Bar Association has begun to help pave the way for law school graduates without legal status. In 2017, it adopted a resolution supporting “the principle that bar admission should not be denied based solely on immigration status.”31
Under the Trump administration, lawyers and law students with DACA face unparalleled uncertainty in their personal and professional lives. In one participant’s words:
It is Congress’ job to pass the Dream Act and end the uncertainty facing Dreamers. Until this occurs, state legislatures and educational institutions can act in ways that support DACAmented lawyers and law students.
Raquel Muñiz and Mara Zrzavy conducted field interviews and worked on this issue brief as law students in the Penn State Law Center for Immigrants’ Rights Clinic under the supervision of the clinic’s director, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia. Nicole Prchal Svajlenka is a senior policy analyst of Immigration Policy at the Center for American Progress.
The authors are grateful to Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia for her direction of the Penn State Law Center for Immigrants’ Rights; Philip E. Wolgin and Tom Jawetz from the Center for American Progress; and the Center for American Progress’ Art and Editorial teams. They also wish to express their sincere gratitude for the participants’ courage and willingness to share their stories.
Institutional affiliation for faculty and students in the Penn State Law Center for Immigrants’ Rights Clinic is provided for identification purposes only and does not represent the views of the institution.
- Camila Domonoske and Joel Rose, “What’s New In Those DHS Memos On Immigration Enforcement?”, NPR, February 22, 2017, available at https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/02/22/516649344/whats-new-in-those-dhs-memos-on-immigration-enforcement; Mark Curnutte, “ICE deports stepfather of paraplegic boy. ‘We cannot do anything else.’,” The Cincinnati Enquirer, March 7, 2018, available at https://www.cincinnati.com/story/news/2018/03/07/ice-deports-stepfather-paraplegic-boy-we-can-not-do-anything-else/375492002/; Chantal Da Silva, “ICE to Deport Cancer-Surviving Mother of Three Amid California Crackdown,” Newsweek, February 28, 2018, available at http://www.newsweek.com/ice-deport-mother-three-despite-fears-cancer-will-return-amid-california-823400; Joseph Dits, “Granger restaurant owner Roberto Beristain deported,” South Bend Tribune, April 6, 2017, available at https://www.southbendtribune.com/news/local/granger-restaurant-owner-roberto-beristain-deported/article_77635bc8-1a58-11e7-a694-1741825be474.html. ↩
- Interviewees were asked to choose how they were most comfortable being identified. Some preferred initials, while other preferred their first names; this is reflected in the quotes throughout the issue brief. ↩
- Letter from U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions to then-acting Secretary of Homeland Security Elaine Duke, September 5, 2017, available at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/17_0904_DOJ_AG-letter-DACA.pdf; U.S. Department of Justice, “Attorney General Sessions Delivers Remarks on DACA,” September 5, 2017, available at https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-sessions-delivers-remarks-daca. ↩
- President Donald Trump, “5:38 p.m., September 5, 2017,” Twitter, available at https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/905228667336499200?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2F2017%2F09%2F05%2Fpolitics%2Fdonald-trump-revisit-daca%2Findex.html. ↩
- Maria Sacchetti, “Federal judge gives respite to ‘dreamers’, says DACA can’t end while lawsuit is pending,” The Washington Post, January 10, 2018, available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/immigration/federal-judge-says-daca-cant-end-while-lawsuit-is-pending/2018/01/09/715745a8-f5ba-11e7-a9e3-ab18ce41436a_story.html?utm_term=.6b3fefeb71e5; National Immigration Law Center, “Supreme Court Denies Premature Appeal of Injunction Allowing DACA Renewals,” February 26, 2018, available at https://www.nilc.org/issues/daca/scotus-denies-appeal-of-injunction-allowing-daca-renewals/. ↩
- Dara Lind, “A judge just opened the door to restarting DACA. Here’s what his ruling means.”, Vox, April 25, 2018, available at https://www.vox.com/2018/4/25/17278644/judge-ruling-trump-end-daca-immigration. ↩
- Texas v. United States, 1:18-cv-00068 (S.D. Tex. 2018), available at https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/files/epress/Mt_for_PI.pdf; Tal Kopan, “Texas lawsuit brings déjà vu,” CNN, May 2, 2018, available at https://www.cnn.com/2018/05/02/politics/daca-lawsuit-judge-hanen-ken-paxton-deja-vu/index.html. ↩
- Roberta Rampton and Susan Cornwell, “Trump seeks $25 billion for border wall, offers ‘Dreamer’ citizenship,” Reuters, January 24, 2018, available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-immigration-whitehouse/trump-seeks-25-billion-for-border-wall-offers-dreamer-citizenship-idUSKBN1FD2UU. ↩
- Nicole Prchal Svajlenka and Philip E. Wolgin, “More Work Needed to Sustain Progress on DACA Renewals” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2018), available at https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/news/2018/04/19/449754/work-needed-sustain-progress-daca-renewals/. ↩
- Dara Lind, “The Postal Service kept him from renewing his DACA. He ended up in immigration detention.”, Vox, December 13, 2017, available at https://www.vox.com/2017/12/13/16772630/daca-expire-ice-arrest-deport; Esther Yu Hsi Lee, “Detention of DACA-eligible recipient at traffic court reveals that the March 5 deadline is bogus,” ThinkProgress, February 2, 2018, available at https://thinkprogress.org/christian-gomez-garcia-ice-traffic-court-36c2e7c69011/; Mark Joseph Stern, “Bad Liars,” Slate, May 16, 2018, available at https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/05/federal-judge-accused-ice-of-making-up-evidence-to-prove-that-dreamer-was-gang-affiliated.html. ↩
- YK (DACA law student), telephone interview with authors, August 10, 2017. ↩
- Memo from former Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson to Thomas S. Winkowski, R. Gil Kerlikowski, Leon Rodriguez, and Alan D. Bersin, November 20, 2014, available at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/14_1120_memo_prosecutorial_discretion.pdf. ↩
- Ari (DACA lawyer), telephone interview with authors, September 30, 2017. ↩
- Barbara Campbell, “Girl Detained By Border Patrol After Emergency Surgery Released To Parents,” NPR, November 3, 2017, available at https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/11/03/562003841/girl-detained-by-border-patrol-after-emergency-surgery-is-released-to-parents; Esther Yu Hsi Lee, “Federal agent detains immigrant mom who accompanied her son to surgery,” ThinkProgress, April 16, 2018, available at https://thinkprogress.org/agent-detains-immigrant-mom-in-hospital-b1f2d8dcab47/; Clark Mindock, “ ‘People are going deep underground’: Immigrants and their year of anxiety under trump,” The Independent, December 26, 2017, available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/trump-immigration-fears-ice-medical-services-pushing-undocumented-underground-a8117521.html. ↩
- Lindsey Bever, “Hispanics ‘are going further into the shadows’ amid chilling immigration debate, police say,” The Washington Post, May 12, 2017, available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/05/12/immigration-debate-might-be-having-a-chilling-effect-on-crime-reporting-in-hispanic-communities-police-say/?utm_term=.e158f50b26ad; Rob Arthur, “Latinos In Three Cities Are Reporting Fewer Crimes Since Trump Took Office,” FiveThirtyEight, May 18, 2017, available at https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/latinos-report-fewer-crimes-in-three-cities-amid-fears-of-deportation/; Christopher Smart, “Fearful of deportation, unauthorized immigrants in Salt Lake City are not reporting crime, police chief says,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 8, 2018, available at https://www.sltrib.com/news/2018/01/08/fearful-of-deportation-unauthorized-immigrants-in-salt-lake-city-are-not-reporting-crime-police-chief-says/. ↩
- Dara Lind, “Trump wants immigrants to be afraid. 2 new studies show it’s working,” Vox, March 5, 2018, available at https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/3/5/17071648/impact-trump-immigration-policy-children. ↩
- MM (DACA lawyer), telephone interview with authors, September, 17, 2017. ↩
- Elizabeth Vaquera, Elizabeth Aranda, and Isabel Sousa-Rodriguez, “Emotional Challenges of Undocumented Young Adults: Ontological Security, Emotional Capital, and Well-being,” Social Problems 64 (2) (2017): 298–314, available at https://academic.oup.com/socpro/article-abstract/64/2/298/3231982?redirectedFrom=fulltext; Rachel Siemons and others, “Coming of Age on the Margins: Mental Health and Wellbeing Among Latino Immigrant Young Adults Eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA),” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 19 (3) (2017): 543–551, available at https://undocu.ucsf.edu/sites/undocu.ucsf.edu/files/Coming_of_Age_on_the_Margins_DACA_Seimons-Brindis_2016.pdf; Belinda Hinojos, “Stressors and Coping Strategies of Undocumented Latinos in Therapy,” Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences 187 (2013), available at https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1189&context=cehsdiss. ↩
- Roberto G. Gonzales, Veronica Terriquez, and Stephen Ruszczyk, “Becoming DACAmented: Assessing the Short-Term Benefits of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA),” American Behavioral Scientist 58 (14) (2014): 1850–1872, available at
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277490551_Becoming_DACAmented_Assessing_the_Short-Term_Benefits_of_Deferred_Action_for_Childhood_Arrivals_DACA; Caitlin Patler and Jorge A. Cabrera, in collaboration with Dream Team Los Angeles, “From Undocumented to DACAmented: Impacts of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program Three Years Following its Announcement” (Los Angeles: Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, 2015), available at http://www.chicano.ucla.edu/files/Patler_DACA_Report_061515.pdf; Siemons and others, “Coming of Age on the Margins.” ↩
- Esmeralda (DACA lawyer), telephone interview with authors, September 2, 2017. ↩
- Dream Act of 2017, S.1615, 115 Cong. 1 sess. (Government Printing Office, 2017), available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/senate-bill/1615; Dream Act of 2017, H.R. 3440, 115 Cong. 1 sess. (Government Printing Office, 2017), available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/3440/related-bills. ↩
- American Immigration Council, “The Dream Act, DACA, and Other Policies Designed to Protect Dreamers” (2017), available at https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/sites/default/files/research/the_dream_act_daca_and_other_policies_designed_to_protect_dreamers.pdf. ↩
- uLEAD Network, “National Map,” available at https://uleadnet.org/issue/map (last accessed May 2018); Catholic Legal Immigration Network Inc., “Tuition Equity Map,” available at https://cliniclegal.org/resources/tuition-equity-map (last accessed May 2018). ↩
- uLEAD Network, “National Map”; CLINIC, “Tuition Equity Map”; University of Hawai’i News, “Regents approve undocumented immigrants policy,” February 26, 2013, available at https://www.hawaii.edu/news/2013/02/26/regents-approve-undocumented-immigrant-policy/; Oregon Office of Student Access and Completion, “Financial Aid for Undocumented and DACA Students,” available at https://www.oregonstudentaid.gov/finaid-undocumented.aspx (last accessed May 2018); Jaqueline Rabe Thomas and Clarice Silber, “Financial aid for ‘dreamers’ becomes a reality in Connecticut,” The Connecticut Mirror, April 25, 2018, available at https://ctmirror.org/2018/04/25/financial-aid-dreamers-becomes-reality-connecticut/; Monsy Alvarado, “Phil Murphy signs bill extending financial aid to undocumented immigrants in New Jersey,” NorthJersey.com, May 9, 2018, available at https://www.northjersey.com/story/news/new-jersey/2018/05/09/phil-murphy-signs-bill-extending-financial-aid-undocumented-students/587128002/. ↩
- uLEAD Network, “National Map.” ↩
- Get Me To College, “2017 School Financial Aid Policies Towards Undocumented Students,” available at https://getmetocollege.org/financial-aid/info-for-undocumented-students/school-policies-towards-undocumented-students (last accessed May 2018). ↩
- Soon Ang and Linn Van Dyne, Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement, and Applications (London: Routledge, 2009). ↩
- Tom K. Wong and others, “Paths to Lawful Immigration Status: Results and Implications from the PERSON Survey,” Journal on Migration and Human Security 2 (4) (2014): 287–304, available at http://jmhs.cmsny.org/index.php/jmhs/article/view/37; Patrick Taurel, “Practice Advisory: Screening Potential DACA Requestors for Other Forms of Relief” (Washington: American Immigration Council, 2017), available at https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/sites/default/files/practice_advisory/screening_potential_daca_requestors_for_other_forms_of_relief.pdf. ↩
- Michael A. Olivas, “Within You Without You: Undocumented Lawyers, DACA, and Occupational Licensing,” Valparaiso University Law Review 52 (2017), available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2997713. ↩
- Dayna Maeder, “Leading the effort to remove bar admission barrier for undocumented law students,” Before the Bar, October 5, 2017, available at https://abaforlawstudents.com/2017/10/05/undocumented-law-students-bar-admission/; National Conference of State Legislatures, “Professional and Occupational Licenses for Immigrants,” January 17, 2017, available at http://www.ncsl.org/research/immigration/professional-and-occupational-licenses-for-immigrants.aspx; American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania, “Pennsylvania Admits DACA Recipient to the Bar,” December 19, 2017, available at https://www.aclupa.org/news/2017/12/19/pennsylvania-admits-daca-recipient-bar-1; American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, “DACA Recipient Sworn in as Lawyer by NJ Attorney General,” January 24, 2018, available at https://www.aclu-nj.org/news/2018/01/24/daca-recipient-sworn-lawyer-nj-attorney-general. ↩
- American Bar Association, “108,” available at https://www.americanbar.org/news/reporter_resources/annual-meeting-2017/house-of-delegates-resolutions/108.html (last accessed May 2018). ↩
- CV (DACA prospective law student), telephone interview with authors, September 30, 2017. ↩