The National Institutes of Health, or NIH, are the drivers of biomedical research and innovation internationally. They are also a major source of public- and private-sector job creation and economic output. The research conducted at the NIH has led to countless new drugs, businesses, and jobs that have repaid many times over the cost of the government’s investment. The federal government invested $26.6 billion in NIH research grants in 2010, which created $68 billion in economic activity and supported 488,000 jobs in every state in the nation. For more information on how public investments in the life sciences and genomics research have had substantial returns on investment, see our analysis at Science Progress.