Examining the Demographic Compositions of U.S. Circuit and District Courts

Examining the Demographic Compositions of U.S. Circuit and District Courts
Getty/Kim Steele

Empty chairs sit in a courtroom.

Introduction and summary

Authors’ note: This report reflects data as of November 18, 2019. Its main goal is to provide advocates and policymakers with an accessible resource demonstrating general trends pertaining to the lack of demographic diversity across all of the lower federal courts. Some individual data points may have altered slightly between November and publication and are not reflected within this report. For instance, changes made to the composition of the U.S Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit since November 2019 are not included. Even acknowledging that small changes have occurred as of publication, the overall trends revealed by this report remain clear.

The U.S. Supreme Court may be the federal judiciary’s crown jewel, but the U.S. District Courts—which conduct trials—and U.S. Courts of Appeals—which hear appeals of lower court decisions—are its workhorses. In fact, the Supreme Court only hears approximately 2 percent of cases it is asked to review each year.1 This means that the vast majority of cases filed in federal courts are ultimately decided by judges sitting on the district or circuit courts.

A recent report by the Center for American Progress examined the lack of female judges, judges of color, and judges self-identifying as LGBTQ across the entire federal judiciary.2 As that report illustrated, judges from different backgrounds and with different life experiences bring their unique and invaluable perspectives to bear on the cases that come before them.3 For litigants, diversity on the federal bench offers real, substantive benefits, including fairer judicial decisions.

A federal judge’s ability to comprehensively analyze facts and consider the implications of a given case is vital. Cases decided by judges on the lower federal courts concern such consequential issues as voting and workers’ rights, health care, immigration, and the rights of LGBTQ individuals. When deciding cases that affect historically underrepresented groups, federal judges who do not belong to such groups may have difficulty recognizing and contextualizing unique concerns or hardships experienced by those whose freedom or rights are being infringed upon; this may result in miscarriages of justice.4 Even absent clear injustices, questions over the courts’ legitimacy arise when cases with outsize impacts on women, people of color, or LGBTQ individuals are decided by courts whose benches are demographically nondiverse.

While nondiverse panels can, and have, ruled to advance vital civil rights—and courts with more diverse benches have ruled against such rights5—the importance of representation transcends particular cases and can improve not only the intellectual diversity and depth of judicial opinions but also the public’s trust in the judiciary as a whole.

This report builds off of CAP’s prior body of work by looking specifically at the demographic diversity of sitting and active judges within the U.S. District Courts and the U.S. Courts of Appeals. Data on sitting judges include judges serving in senior status—a form of semiretirement—who can still hear cases. Datasets for active judges, on the other hand, do not include senior-status judges and only reflect judges who serve on the courts full time. For this report, the authors have chosen to break out statistics based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Additionally, the authors emphasize statistics on the severe underrepresentation of women of color, which reflects this group’s long-standing intersectional exclusion from the judiciary.

Data included in this report reflect federal judges serving on the lower federal courts as of November 18, 2019. Due to the rate at which federal judges are being appointed, combined with the regularity of judges electing senior status or vacating the bench, some individual data points may have altered between November and date of publication and are not reflected herein. For example, in December 2019, a judge who self-identifies as LGBTQ was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit. And in February 2020, Judge Deborah A. Batts—the nation’s first openly LGBTQ federal judge and a woman of color—who served as a senior judge on the Southern District Court of New York, sadly passed away.6 It is important to note that even small changes in the appointment or vacancy of judges identifying as LGBTQ, women, people of color, and women of color can drastically alter statistics because of how radically underrepresented these judges are on courts across the judiciary.

The report’s findings paint a bleak picture of demographic representation across the lower federal courts.

For instance, across all Article III U.S. District Courts and the U.S. Courts of Appeals, people of color make up just 20 percent of all sitting judges and 27 percent of active judges. In all, African Americans comprise 10 percent of sitting judges and 13 percent of active judges, while Hispanic judges make up about 7 percent and 9 percent of sitting and active judges, respectively. Asian Americans comprise an even smaller proportion of the lower federal courts: Only 2.5 percent of active judges and 4 percent of sitting judges are Asian American. American Indian judges and those belonging to more than one race or ethnicity each make up about 1 percent or less of the lower federal judiciary.

There are also significant gender disparities on the lower federal courts. For example, female judges make up just 27 percent of all lower federal court sitting judges and 34 percent of active judges. For their part, women of color comprise just 7 percent of all sitting judges and 10 percent of all active judges serving on the lower federal courts. African American women make up only about 3 percent of all sitting judges and 5 percent of all active district and circuit judges. Hispanic women, on the other hand, comprise between 2 percent and 4 percent of the lower federal courts, while Asian American women make up only 1 percent to 2 percent of the lower federal bench. Native American women and women belonging to more than one race or ethnicity make up fewer than 1 percent each of all district and circuit judges.

Finally, judges who self-identify as LGBTQ also comprise an exceptionally small proportion of judges on the lower courts: Just 0.9 percent of all sitting judges and 1.5 percent of all active judges on the U.S. Courts of Appeals and U.S. District Courts self-identify as LGBTQ.7 Indeed, nearly half—6 of 13—of all federal circuit jurisdictions have no circuit or district judges who self-identify as LGBTQ.

In looking specifically at the U.S. Courts of Appeals, the following findings emerged:

  • Race and ethnicity: Among active judges, whites represent at least 80 percent of the bench on nearly half of all circuit courts.8 There is not a single circuit court whose majority comprises people of color.
  • Gender and sexual orientation: Only one circuit court comprises at least 50 percent of actively serving female judges. Just one circuit court includes a judge who self-identifies as LGBTQ.9
  • Women of color: Eight of the 13 circuit courts—61.5 percent—have no women of color actively serving as judges. Women of color do not comprise even one-fifth of any circuit court.

In examining the U.S. District Courts, the authors found:

  • Race and ethnicity: Among active judges, 39 of the 91 Article III district courts entirely comprise white judges. Active judges of color comprise at least half of the bench on only 13 district courts—14 percent. Just one district court—the District Court of Puerto Rico—entirely comprises judges of color.
  • Gender and sexual orientation: Among active judges, women make up at least half of the bench on 15 district courts—16 percent—and the majority of the bench on just 7 district courts, or 8 percent. Just one district court—the Southern District Court of Illinois—entirely comprises active female judges. Active judges who self-identify as LGBTQ are completely absent from 90 percent of all federal district courts.
  • Women of color: Sixty percent, or 55 out of 91, of all Article III district courts have no women of color actively serving on them.10 There are only two district courts—the Southern District Court of Illinois and the District Court of Hawaii—where women of color make up half of presiding active judges.

The purpose of this report is to help lawmakers and advocates identify federal jurisdictions where representation of judges belonging to historically underrepresented groups is most sorely lacking. Although women, people of color, and LGBTQ judges are underrepresented in nearly every federal jurisdiction across the country, some jurisdictions are worse off than others.

A note on the data

The demographic data presented in this report reflect federal judges appointed to Article III courts as defined by the U.S. Constitution. The data derive almost entirely from the Federal Judicial Center (FJC) website, specifically the FJC’s Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present.11 In order to ensure consistency, the report’s demographic categorizations are derived entirely from the FJC’s website. The authors, however, wish to stress that there exists within these broad categories a wide variety of different communities who face different types of discrimination and needs. Data on judges who self-identify as LGBTQ are taken from the Minority Corporate Counsel Association and supplemented with FJC data. This report reflects the demographic composition of the lower Article III federal courts as of November 18, 2019. More specifically, the data contained in this report reflect sitting and active federal judges who were commissioned on or before that date. Some data may have changed as of the date of publication, specifically as related to sitting judges who vacate the bench more frequently than active judges.

For Part 2 of this report, the authors include data on judges serving actively on the 91 Article III district courts. The authors did not include analysis on the compositions of the District Court of Guam, District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, as they are not Article III courts under the U.S. Constitution.

To determine the demographic composition of circuit populations, the authors relied primarily on data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau. Census data were supplemented by information provided by the World Bank or CIA World Factbook where necessary.

The demographic compositions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals

Note that data contained within this section reflect the compositions of U.S. Courts of Appeals as of November 18, 2019. Specific data points may have altered between that date and the date of publication.

The U.S. Courts of Appeals represent the courts of last resort for the vast majority of cases filed in the federal system. Judges sitting on circuit courts wield significant power over not only the outcomes of important individual cases but also the development of U.S. law, since precedent set at the circuit level is binding on lower courts within that circuit and considered persuasive in other lower courts. More than 60,000 cases were filed in U.S. Courts of Appeals in 2017.12

Unfortunately, despite their immense power, the circuit courts are largely homogenous in terms of gender, race, and sexual orientation. Overall, women comprise only about 26 percent of sitting circuit court judges and about 34.5 percent of active judges, compared with 51 percent of the U.S. population. In fact, female judges do not comprise a majority of any U.S. Courts of Appeals and comprise half of the bench on only one court, the 11th Circuit, and only among that court’s active judges. The 8th Circuit offers a particularly stark example of the lack of female judges, as it has only one woman serving on its bench.

Although people of color comprise roughly 40 percent of the U.S. general population, they make up just 17 percent of sitting circuit court judges and 23 percent of active judges. On no circuit court do judges of color comprise more than 36 percent of the bench. The 7th Circuit has no judges of color at all. Moreover, despite comprising 12.5 percent of the U.S population, African Americans make up just 7.5 percent of all sitting circuit court judges and approximately 10 percent of all active judges. African American judges are entirely absent from two circuit courts.13

Furthermore, Asian Americans, who represent approximately 5.7 percent of the general population, make up just 4 percent of all sitting circuit court judges and 5.7 percent of all active judges; they are entirely absent from 7 of the 13 circuit courts.14 And despite making up 18 percent of the U.S. population, Hispanic judges comprise only about 5.5 percent of sitting circuit court judges and 7 percent of all active judges currently serving on U.S. Courts of Appeals. Worse still, five circuits have no actively serving Hispanic judges on the bench.15

There are no American Indian judges serving on federal circuit courts. Furthermore, according to the FJC, there are no circuit court judges who belong to two or more races or ethnicities. As a point of reference, American Indians and Alaska Natives comprise roughly 1 percent of the U.S. population, while those belonging to two or more races make up about 3 percent of the country’s general population.16

Representation of women of color on circuit courts is even more dire. Women of color comprise only about 4 percent of sitting circuit court judges and about 6 percent of active circuit court judges. Comparatively, women of color comprise approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population.17 In fact, the majority of circuit courts have no women of color sitting or actively serving on them at all. Across the U.S. Courts of Appeals, there are just five African American women, only four of whom actively serve, and four Latina judges.18 Only two Asian American women serve as judges across all 13 federal circuit courts. And only two circuits—the 9th and D.C. circuits—have more than one woman of color serving as either a sitting or active judge.

Just one circuit court judge—Todd Michael Hughes—self-identifies as LGBTQ. Appointed in 2013 by former President Barack Obama, Judge Hughes is the first openly LGBTQ judge to serve on a U.S. circuit court. The lack of judges who self-identify as LGBTQ on the U.S. Courts of Appeals is disconcerting considering that people identifying as LGBTQ comprise 4.5 percent of the U.S. population.19

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 1st Circuit

The 1st Circuit Court’s jurisdiction covers the following states and territories: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Puerto Rico.20

In looking at the combined populations of these four states and Puerto Rico, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 42 percent and 51.5 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans and Asians each make up slightly more than 4 percent of the 1st Circuit’s general population, while Hispanics represent about 32 percent.21

In comparison, the 1st Circuit Court comprises judges who are overwhelmingly white and male. For example, whites comprise 82 percent of sitting judges and 67 percent of active judges on that circuit court. There is only one African American judge and one Hispanic judge on the court—each comprising 9 percent of sitting judges and 17 percent of active judges. There are no Asian American or American Indian judges on the 1st Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And despite making up a majority of the general population, there are only two female judges on the court, comprising just 18 percent of all sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on that court.

There is only one woman of color—Judge Ojetta R. Thompson, who is African American—on the 1st Circuit. There is not a single judge on the 1st Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 1st Circuit and the general populations of those four states and one territory lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 1st Circuit, there is a 24 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows to a 9 percentage-point gap.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 33 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 1st Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows—to approximately 18.5 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit

The 2nd Circuit Court’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Connecticut, New York, and Vermont.22

In looking at the combined populations of these three states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 42 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up approximately 13.5 percent of the 2nd Circuit’s general population, while Asians and Hispanics represent nearly 8 percent and slightly more than 18 percent, respectively.23

Comparatively speaking, the 2nd Circuit Court is largely white and male. Whites comprise 77 percent of sitting judges and 69 percent of active judges on that circuit court. Among the court’s sitting judges, three are African American, comprising 11.5 percent of sitting judges on that court. However, only one of the court’s African American judges actively serves. There is one Hispanic judge on the court, representing 4 percent and 8 percent of sitting and active judges, respectively, and two Asian American judges on the 2nd Circuit, making up about 8 percent of sitting judges and 15 percent of active judges on that court. There are no American Indian judges on the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Despite making up a majority of the general population, women make up just 19 percent of all sitting judges and 23 percent of active judges on the 2nd Circuit Court. Among the court’s sitting judges, one—Judge Amalya Lyle Kearse—is an African American woman, though she is currently serving in senior status. Therefore, not one of the court’s 13 active judges is a woman of color.

There is not a single judge on the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit and those three states’ general populations lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 2nd Circuit, there is about a 19 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows to a 11 percentage-point gap.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 32 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 2nd Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows slightly—to approximately 28 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone. 

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit

The 3rd Circuit Court’s jurisdiction covers the following states and territories: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.24

In looking at the combined populations of these three states and the Virgin Islands, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 33 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans and Hispanics each make up slightly more than 12 percent of the 3rd Circuit’s general population, while Asians represent about 6 percent.25

But this diversity is not reflected in the composition of the 3rd Circuit Court. Whites comprise 83 percent of sitting judges and 79 percent of active judges on that circuit court. There are only two African American judges on the court, comprising 8 percent of sitting judges and 14 percent of active judges. Although there are two sitting Hispanic judges on the 3rd Circuit, only one is active, comprising just 7 percent of the court’s active judges. There are no Asian American or American Indian judges on the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And despite making up a majority of the general population, there are only five sitting female judges and two active female judges on the court, comprising just 21 percent of all sitting judges and 14 percent of active judges on that court, respectively. The fact that women on the 3rd Circuit Court make up an even smaller proportion of active judges compared with sitting judges is notable, since generally, gender diversity tends to be better among active judges, who are often younger and more recently appointed than sitting judges.

There are no women of color on the 3rd Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit and the general populations of those three states and one territory lead to gaps in demographic representation. Among sitting judges on the 3rd Circuit, there is a 16 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows slightly to a 12 percentage-point gap.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 30 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 3rd Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. In looking at active judges alone, the gap actually swells to a 37 percentage-point gap.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit

The 4th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia.26

In looking at the combined populations of these five states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 38 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up approximately 22 percent of the 4th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing 4 percent and 9 percent, respectively.27

Compared with this, the demographic makeup of the 4th Circuit Court is remarkedly nondiverse. For example, whites comprise 83 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the 4th Circuit. The court includes only two African American judges—comprising 11 percent of sitting judges and 13 percent of active judges—and just one Hispanic judge. There are no Asian American or American Indian judges on the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And despite making up a majority of the general population, there are just five female judges on the court, comprising 28 percent of all sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench. Moreover, there are no women of color serving on the 4th Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit and those five states’ general populations lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 4th Circuit, there is a 21 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows slightly to a 18 percentage-point gap.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 23 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 4th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows slightly—to approximately 18 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit

The 5th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.28

The jurisdiction covered by the 5th Circuit is unique in that people of color comprise a majority of the jurisdiction’s general population. In looking at the combined populations of these three states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 55 percent and 50.5 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up roughly 17 percent of the 5th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing about 4.3 percent and 32 percent, respectively.29

Compared with its the general population, the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals is the least racially and ethnically diverse circuit court in the country. For instance, despite making up just 45 percent of the general population, white judges comprise 85 percent of all sitting judges and 81 percent of all active judges on the 5th Circuit Court. Just two circuit judges are African Americans, comprising 8 percent and 12.5 percent of sitting and active judges on that court, respectively. Furthermore, the 5th Circuit has just one Asian American judge and one sitting Hispanic judge. There are no active Hispanic judges on the court, even though Hispanics represent nearly one-third of the 5th Circuit’s general population. There are no American Indian judges serving on the 5th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And despite making up a majority of the general population, female judges comprise only 23 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges on the 5th Circuit Court. Moreover, there are no women of color serving on the 5th Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit and those three states’ general populations lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 5th Circuit, there is a 40 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows slightly to a 36 percentage-point gap.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 27.5 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 5th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows slightly—to approximately 25.5 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit

The 6th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee.30

In looking at the combined populations of these four states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 23 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up about 13 percent of the 6th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing roughly 2.5 percent and 5 percent, respectively.31

The 6th Circuit Court is unique in that, compared with their respective share of the general population, African Americans are marginally overrepresented among active judges. Asian Americans are also slightly overrepresented among both sitting and active judges on the court compared with their share of the jurisdiction’s general population. Overall, whites make up about 83 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 69 percent of active judges. The three African American judges on the bench represent 10 percent and 19 percent of sitting and active judges, respectively. And the court’s two Asian American judges make up 7 percent of the court’s sitting judges, along with 12.5 percent of the circuit’s active judges. However, there are no Hispanic or American Indian judges serving on the 6th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And although women make up a majority of the circuit’s general population, they comprise just 30 percent of all sitting judges and 37.5 percent of all active judges on that court. There is one woman of color serving on the 6th Circuit Court—Judge Bernice B. Donald, who is African American.

There is not a single judge on the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit and those four states’ general populations result in gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 6th Circuit, there is a 6 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. However, in looking only at active judges, people of color are slightly overrepresented on the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals by about 8 percentage points compared with their share of the general population.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 21 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 6th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. The gap narrows to approximately 13.5 percentage points if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit

The 7th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states and territories: Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin.32

In looking at the combined populations of these three states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 30 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up 11 percent of the 7th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing roughly 4 percent and 12 percent, respectively.33

Among all the federal circuit courts, the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals is unique in that all of its judges are white. There are no sitting or active judges of color on the 7th Circuit bench. Moreover, despite making up a majority of the population, female judges make up just 36 percent of sitting judges and 45.5 percent of its active judges on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals.

There is not a single judge on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

These disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit and those three states’ general populations result in significant gaps in demographic representation. For instance, there is a 30 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with judges of color serving on the 7th Circuit Court. This gap holds true regardless of whether one looks at sitting or active judges on the bench.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 15 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 7th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. The gap narrows to approximately 5.5 percentage points when looking at active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit

The 8th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.34

In looking at the combined populations of these seven states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 21 percent and 50.4 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up slightly more than 8 percent of the 8th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing 3 percent and 6 percent, respectively.35

The 8th Circuit’s general population is among the least diverse in the country, but whites are still strikingly overrepresented on the court compared with their share of the population. For instance, whites comprise 94 percent of sitting judges and 91 percent of active judges on the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals. There is only one person of color on the 8th Circuit Court—Judge Lavenski R. Smith, who is an African American man. There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges presiding over the 8th Circuit Court, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender disparities, the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals stands out as an extreme example. Although women make up a majority of the general population, the 8th Circuit has only one female judge, comprising just 6 percent of all sitting judges and 9 percent of active judges on that court. Moreover, there are no women of color on the 8th Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit and those seven states’ general populations lead to notable gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 8th Circuit, there is a 15 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows slightly to an 12 percentage-point gap.

The gaps are even more startling regarding gender disparities. There is a 44 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 8th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows slightly—to approximately 41 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit

The 9th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states and territories: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.36

In looking at the combined populations of these nine states and Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 53 percent and 50.2 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up about 5 percent of the 9th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing 12 percent and 31 percent, respectively.37

Unlike its highly diverse general population, judges on the 9th Circuit are surprisingly homogenous in terms of race and ethnicity and gender. Whites, for instance, comprise 74.5 percent of sitting judges and 70 percent of active judges on the 9th Circuit. African Americans and Asian Americans each make up about 6 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 7 percent of its active judges. Hispanic judges make up 13 percent of sitting judges and 15 percent of active judges on the bench. There are no American Indian judges serving on the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And although they make up a majority of the general population, women represent 32 percent of sitting judges and 48 percent of active judges on the 9th Circuit. Notably, the 9th Circuit bench has more women of color than any other circuit court: 11 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 18.5 percent of its active judges are women of color. In all, five of the court’s judges are women of color. One judge is an African American woman, while another is Asian American. Three judges on the 9th Circuit are Latinas.

There is not a single judge on the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit and the general populations of those nine states and two territories lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 9th Circuit, there is a 27.5 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows to roughly 23 percentage points.

In examining gender disparities, there is an 18 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 9th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows to approximately 2 percentage points if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit

The 10th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, and Wyoming.38

In looking at the combined populations of these six states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 33 percent and 50 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up slightly more than 4 percent of the 10th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing 3 percent and 19 percent, respectively.39

In comparison, the 10th Circuit Court itself comprises judges who are overwhelmingly white: Whites comprise 91 percent of sitting judges and 83 percent of active judges on the court. People of color comprise just 9 percent of the 10th Circuit’s sitting judges and 17 percent of its active judges. The 10th Circuit Court includes only one African American judge and one Hispanic judge, each comprising about 4.5 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 8 percent of its active judges. There are no Asian American or American Indian judges on the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

And despite making up a majority of the general population, female judges comprise only about 23 percent of the circuit court’s sitting judges and one-third of its active judges. Moreover, there are no women of color on the 10th Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit and those six states’ general populations lead to notable gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 10th Circuit, there is a 24 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows slightly to about 16 percentage points.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 27 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 10th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. Again, the gap narrows slightly—to approximately 17 percentage points—if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit

The 11th Circuit’s jurisdiction covers the following states: Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.40

In looking at the combined populations of these three states, one finds that people of color and women comprise approximately 45 percent and 51 percent of the general population, respectively. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans make up roughly 21.5 percent of the 11th Circuit’s general population, with Asians and Hispanics representing 3 percent and 18.5 percent, respectively.

The 11th Circuit Court comprises judges who are mostly white: Whites make up 90 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on that court. Put another way, people of color comprise just 10 percent of the circuit’s sitting judges and one-fifth of its active judges. The court includes just one African American judge and one Hispanic judge. There are no Asian American or American Indian judges on the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Among federal circuit courts, the 11th Circuit has the largest proportion of female judges. For instance, although 40 percent of the 11th Circuit’s sitting judges are women, that number jumps to 50 percent among active judges. That said, there are no women of color serving on the 11th Circuit bench, and none of the court’s judges self-identify as LGBTQ.

Disparities between the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit and those three states’ general populations lead to gaps in demographic representation. For instance, among sitting judges on the 11th Circuit, there is a 35 percentage-point gap between the proportion of people of color within the general population compared with those serving on the circuit court. In looking only at active judges, the gap narrows somewhat to about 25 percentage points.

In examining gender disparities, there is a 11 percentage-point gap between the proportion of women in the 11th Circuit’s general population and sitting judges on the court. The gap narrows to just 1 percentage point if one examines active judges alone.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit

The D.C. Circuit handles cases involving federal agencies and disputes between branches of the federal government.41 Because it does not have jurisdiction over a particular set of states or territories, the analysis below does not include a comparison of the court’s demographic composition with a general population.

The D.C. Circuit Court is majority white and male. Whites comprise 72 percent of sitting judges or 64 percent of active judges on that court. Put another way, people of color comprise just 28 percent of the circuit’s sitting judges or 36 percent of its active judges. Only two of the court’s three sitting African American judges actively hear cases on a regular basis. And although there are two Asian American judges on the court, comprising 11 percent of sitting judges and 18 percent of active judges on the bench, there are no Hispanic or American Indian judges presiding over the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, five of the D.C. Circuit’s 18 sitting judges and 11 active judges are women, meaning women make up approximately 28 percent of sitting judges and 45.5 percent of active judges. Two active judges on the D.C. Circuit are women of color: Judge Judith Ann Wilson Rogers, who is African American, and Judge Neomi Rao, who is Asian American.

There is not a single judge on the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals who self-identifies as LGBTQ.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

The Federal Circuit Court has nationwide jurisdiction and primarily handles cases concerning U.S. patent and trademark law and other matters specific to federal government administration.42 Because it does not have jurisdiction over a particular set of states or territories, the analysis below does not include a comparison of the court’s demographic composition with a general population.

The Federal Circuit comprises judges who are overwhelmingly white and male. Eighty-three percent of sitting judges, and 75 percent of active judges, on the Federal Circuit court are white. People of color comprise just 17 percent of the circuit’s sitting judges and 25 percent of its active judges. One of the court’s judges is Asian American, and there are two Hispanic judges. There are no African American or American Indian judges serving on the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, five of the Federal Circuit’s 18 sitting judges and 12 active judges are women, meaning women comprise 28 percent of sitting judges and 42 percent of active judges on the bench. Of the female judges serving on the court, just one is a woman of color: Judge Kara Farnandez Stoll, who is Latina.

There is one judge on the Federal Circuit Court who self-identifies as LGBTQ.43

The demographic compositions of the U.S. District Courts

Note that data contained within this section reflect the compositions of U.S. District Courts as of November 18, 2019. Specific data points may have altered between that date and the date of publication.

The previous section examined judges belonging to different demographic groups across the 12 regional courts appeals and Federal circuit. This section focuses on the demographic compositions of the U.S. District Courts. The U.S. District Courts handle more cases than nearly any other division of the federal judiciary.44 In 2017, nearly 368,000 civil and criminal-related cases were filed in federal district courts across the country.45

Unfortunately, as is typical across the entire federal judiciary, there are exceptionally few women, people and women of color, and judges who self-identify as LGBTQ on the U.S. District Courts. For instance, regarding gender disparities, women comprise only about 27 percent of all sitting district court judges and about 33 percent of active judges. Additionally, when it comes to female representation on the district courts:

  • Five district courts, or 5 percent, have no sitting female judges.46 That number doubles when considering active judges: In all, 10 federal district courts, or 11 percent, have no actively serving female judges on the bench.47
  • Actively serving female judges make up at least half of the bench on only 15 district courts, or 16.5 percent.48 Among sitting judges, women make up at least half the bench on only three of all district courts, or 3 percent.49
  • Only one district court—the Southern District Court of Illinois—entirely comprises female judges, at least among that court’s active judges.

People of color comprise just 21 percent of sitting or 28 percent of active judges on the district courts. More specifically, African Americans make up just 11 percent of all sitting district court judges and approximately 13.5 percent of all active judges. Asian American judges make up just 2 percent of all sitting district court judges and 3 percent of all active judges on U.S. district courts. And despite making up an increasingly large share of the U.S. population, Hispanic judges comprise only about 7 percent of all sitting district court judges and 10 percent of all active judges. There are just two American Indian district court judges, only one of whom is active. Furthermore, district court judges who belong to two or more races or ethnicities account for only about 1 percent of all sitting and active judges on district benches.

In all, more than one-third of all federal district courts comprise entirely white judges and have no judges of color serving on them. Among sitting judges, judges of color make up at least half of the bench on just four of all district courts, or 4 percent.50 Among active judges, that number jumps to just 13 of all district courts, or 14 percent.51 Only one district court, the District Court of Puerto Rico, entirely comprises judges of color, all of whom are Hispanic. Other startling statistics include the following:

  • Among sitting judges, African Americans are absent from about 42 percent of all U.S. district courts. Among active judges, that number jumps to 50.5 percent. In other words, half of all federal district courts have no African Americans actively serving on them.
  • More than 70 percent of all district courts have no Hispanic judges serving on them. There are no Hispanic judges serving on any district courts located within the 4th, 6th, or 8th federal circuits.
  • Asian American judges are completely absent from 86 percent of all district courts.52 There are no Asian American judges serving in any district courts located within five regional federal circuit jurisdictions.53
  • Among sitting judges, just two district courts (2 percent) include American Indian judges.54 However, only one district court—the District Court of Arizona—includes an American Indian judge who actively serves on the bench.

Representation of women of color on district courts is similarly poor. Women of color comprise only about 7.5 percent of sitting district court judges and about 12 percent of active judges. In fact, the majority—or 60 percent—of all district courts have no women of color sitting or actively serving on them at all. What’s more, women of color do not make up a majority of any district courts and comprise just 50 percent of actively serving judges on just two (2 percent) of all district courts.55 In most districts where they do serve, women of color only comprise between 5 percent to 20 percent of the bench.

Finally, although judges who self-identify as LGBTQ make up a slightly larger proportion of district court judges compared with their representation on circuit courts, they are still underrepresented compared with their proportion of the general population. For instance, district court judges who self-identify as LGBTQ make up only about 1 percent of all sitting judges and approximately 2 percent of active judges serving on district courts. The vast majority—90 percent—of district courts have no judges who self-identify as LGBTQ. There is just one district where judges self-identifying as LGBTQ comprise at least one-third of the bench.56 In all other districts where they serve, judges self-identifying as LGBTQ make up between 2 percent and 17 percent of the bench.

The following section examines the demographic composition of district courts by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation. For simplicity’s sake, the authors have organized each district court under its corresponding federal circuit.

District courts housed within the 1st Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 1st Circuit:

  • District of Maine
  • District of Massachusetts
  • District of New Hampshire
  • District of Puerto Rico
  • District of Rhode Island

In examining the combined compositions of these five district courts, white judges make up approximately 74 percent of sitting judges and 69 percent of active judges. Three of the 5 district courts—Maine, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island—entirely comprise white judges. Across all five districts, there is only one African American judge and one judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity. Hispanic judges make up a total of 21 percent of all sitting judges and 23 percent of all active judges across the five districts, although they are all confined to a single jurisdiction: The District Court of Puerto Rico. Among district courts housed under the 1st Circuit, there are no Asian American or American Indian district judges. The District Court of Puerto Rico is entirely distinct among district courts in that it entirely comprises judges of color.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about 26 percent of all sitting judges and 35 percent of active judges across all five of the 1st Circuit’s district courts. Women of color make up 9 percent of sitting judges and 15 percent of active judges across all the five district courts but serve only on the district courts of Massachusetts and Puerto Rico.

No judge on any district court located within the 1st Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

District Court of Maine

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Maine entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is only one female judge on the District Court of Maine.
  • No judge on the District Court of Maine self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Maine.
District Court of Massachusetts

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 88 percent of sitting judges and 82 percent of active judges on the District Court of Massachusetts.
  • The court has one African American judge.
  • The court has one judge who belongs to more than one race or ethnicity, specifically Asian American and white.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Massachusetts.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 29 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 36 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Massachusetts self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 12 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 18 percent of its active judges.
District Court of New Hampshire

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of New Hampshire entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is only one female judge on the District Court of New Hampshire.
  • No judge on the District Court of New Hampshire self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of New Hampshire.
District Court of Puerto Rico

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Puerto Rico entirely comprises Hispanic judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Puerto Rico self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
District Court of Rhode Island

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Rhode Island entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Two of the court’s judges are women, although only one actively serves, comprising 33 percent of the district’s active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Rhode Island self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Rhode Island.

District courts housed within the 2nd Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 2nd Circuit:

  • District of Connecticut
  • Northern District of New York
  • Southern District of New York
  • Eastern District of New York
  • Western District of New York
  • District of Vermont

In examining the combined compositions of these six district courts, white judges make up approximately 79 percent of sitting judges and 65 percent of active judges. Three of the 6 district courts—the Northern District Court of New York, the Western District Court of New York, and the District Court of Vermont—comprise entirely white judges. Across all six district courts, there are only three Asian American judges and two judges who belonging to more than one race or ethnicity. There are a total of four Hispanic judges, only three of whom are active. African American judges make up a total of 12 percent of all sitting judges and 18 percent of all active judges across the six district courts. There is no American Indian judge on any of the six district courts. The Eastern District Court of New York is somewhat unique among district courts in that people of color comprise a majority of the court’s active judges.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise 36 percent of sitting judges across all six districts and 51 percent of all active judges. In fact, women make up a full 82 percent of active judges serving on the Eastern District Court of New York. Moreover, 3 of the 6 district courts include at least one judge who is a woman of color. In all, women of color make up 10 percent of all sitting judges and 18 percent of all active judges across the six district courts.

Combined, these six district courts include more judges who self-identify as LGBTQ than any other federal jurisdiction. In fact, the Southern District Court of New York leads the judiciary in total number of LGBTQ judges, with three of its sitting judges and two of its active judges self-identifying as LGBTQ.

District Court of Connecticut

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 75 percent of sitting judges and 71 percent of active judges on the District Court of Connecticut.
  • The court includes three African American judges, only two of whom actively serve.
  • There are no Hispanic, Asian American, or American Indian judges on the District Court of Connecticut, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 33 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 43 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Connecticut self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is just one woman of color serving on the District Court of Connecticut: Judge Vanessa L. Bryant, who is African American.
Northern District Court of New York

Race and ethnicity

  • The Northern District Court of New York entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • The district includes two female judges, comprising 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 50 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of New York self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Northern District Court of New York.
Southern District Court of New York

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 72.5 percent of sitting judges and 59 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of New York.
  • The court includes a total of five African American judges, four of whom actively serve.
  • There is one Asian American judge on the court, comprising 2.5 percent of sitting judges and 4.5 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • Two of the court’s judges belong to more than one race or ethnicity.
  • There are three sitting Hispanic judges serving on the Southern District Court of New York, two of whom actively serve.
  • There are no American Indian judges on the Southern District Court of New York.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 35 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 41 percent of its active judges.
  • There are three sitting judges on the Southern District Court of New York who self-identify as LGBTQ, two of whom actively serve, thereby comprising 9 percent of all active judges on the court.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 10 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 14 percent of its active judges.
Eastern District Court of New York

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 73 percent of sitting judges but just 45.5 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of New York.
  • The court includes a total of four sitting African American judges, three of whom actively serve.
  • Two of the court’s judges are Asian American, comprising 8 percent of sitting judges and 18 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There is one Hispanic judge on the court.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of New York, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up more than half of the court’s sitting judges and 82 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Eastern District Court of New York self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 19 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 45.5 percent of its active judges.
Western District Court of New York

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of New York entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 12.5 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of New York self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of New York.
District Court of Vermont

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Vermont entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 25 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Vermont self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Vermont.

District courts housed within the 3rd Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 3rd Circuit:57

  • District of Delaware
  • District of New Jersey
  • Eastern District of Pennsylvania
  • Western District of Pennsylvania
  • Middle District of Pennsylvania

In examining the combined compositions of these five district courts, white judges make up approximately 80 percent of sitting judges and 74.5 percent of active judges. Two of the 5 district courts—the District Court of Delaware and the Middle District Court of Pennsylvania—entirely comprise white judges. African Americans comprise 9 percent of all sitting judges and 11 percent of active judges, while Hispanic judges comprise 6 percent of sitting and active judges across all five jurisdictions. There is just one Asian American judge and three judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity. There are no American Indian district court judges serving within the 3rd Circuit.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about 31 percent of all sitting judges and 36 percent of active judges across all five of the 3rd Circuit’s district courts. Women of color make up 8 percent of sitting judges and 13 percent of active judges across all the five district courts. However, two district courts have no women of color serving on the bench.

Just one district judge serving within the 3rd Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

District Court of Delaware

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Delaware entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Delaware self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Delaware.
District Court of New Jersey

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 68 percent of sitting judges and 64 percent of active judges on the District Court of New Jersey.
  • The court includes a total of three African American judges, two of whom actively serve.
  • Two of the court’s judges are Hispanic, although just one serves actively.
  • One judge on the bench belongs to more than one race or ethnicity, comprising 5 percent of sitting judges and 9 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of New Jersey.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 47 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 54.5 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of New Jersey self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 16 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 18 percent of its active judges.
Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 74 percent of sitting judges and 68 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania.
  • The court includes a total of five African American judges, three of whom actively serve.
  • Three of the court’s judges are Hispanic, although just two serve actively.
  • One judge on the bench belongs to more than one race or ethnicity, comprising 5 percent of sitting judges and 3 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 20 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 26 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 9 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 16 percent of its active judges.
Western District Court of Pennsylvania

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 88 percent of sitting judges and 71 percent of active judges on the Western District Court of Pennsylvania.
  • The court includes one Asian American judge, comprising 6 percent of sitting judges and 14 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There is one judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.
  • There are no African American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Pennsylvania.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 41 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 57 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Pennsylvania self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color on the Western District Court of Pennsylvania: Judge Cathy Bissoon, who is Asian American/Hispanic.
Middle District Court of Pennsylvania

Race and ethnicity

  • The Middle District Court of Pennsylvania entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are three women serving on the district court, only one of whom is active, comprising 17 percent of the court’s active judges.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Pennsylvania self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Middle District Court of Pennsylvania.

District courts housed within the 4th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 4th Circuit:

  • District of Maryland
  • Eastern District of North Carolina
  • Western District of North Carolina
  • Middle District of North Carolina
  • District of South Carolina
  • Eastern District of Virginia
  • Western District of Virginia
  • Northern District of West Virginia
  • Southern District of West Virginia

In examining the combined compositions of these nine district courts, white judges make up approximately 87 percent of sitting judges and 82 percent of active judges. Nearly half of all nine district courts entirely comprise white judges. African Americans comprise 11 percent of all sitting judges and 16 percent of active judges. There is just one Asian American judge across all nine district courts. There are no Hispanic or American Indian judges serving on any district court within the jurisdiction, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about 27 percent of all sitting judges and 31 percent of active judges across all nine of the 4th Circuit’s district courts. One district court—the Western District Court of North Carolina—does not have any female judges. Women of color make up just 6 percent of sitting judges and 8 percent of active judges across all the nine district courts. However, more than half of the districts have no women of color serving on the bench.

No judge on any district court located within the 4th Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

District Court of Maryland

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 79 percent of sitting judges and 70 percent of active judges on the District Court of Maryland.
  • The court includes two African American judges, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There is one Asian American judge on the district court.
  • There are no Hispanic or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Maryland, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 36 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 40 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Maryland self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Maryland.
Eastern District Court of North Carolina

Race and ethnicity

  • The Eastern District Court of North Carolina entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is only one female judge on the Eastern District Court of North Carolina, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of North Carolina self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of North Carolina.
Western District Court of North Carolina

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of North Carolina entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are no female judges serving on the Western District Court of North Carolina.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of North Carolina self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of North Carolina.
Middle District Court of North Carolina

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 80 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Middle District Court of North Carolina.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of North Carolina, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 40 percent of the court’s sitting judges and half of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of North Carolina self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is just one woman of color serving on the Middle District Court of North Carolina: Judge Loretta C. Biggs, who is African American.
District Court of South Carolina

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 85 percent of sitting judges and 87.5 percent of active judges on the District Court of South Carolina.
  • The court includes two sitting African American judges, only one of whom is actively serving.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of South Carolina, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up approximately 38 percent of the court’s sitting judges and active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of South Carolina self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Two of the District Court of South Carolina’s sitting judges are women of color, but only one actively serves: Judge Julianna M. Childs, who is African American.
Eastern District Court of Virginia

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 82 percent of sitting judges and 70 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Virginia.
  • The court includes three African American judges, comprising 18 percent of sitting judges and 30 percent of active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Virginia, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 23.5 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 30 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Virginia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Virginia: Judge Arenda L. W. Allen, who is African American.
Western District Court of Virginia

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Virginia entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 17 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Virginia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Virginia.
Northern District Court of West Virginia

Race and ethnicity

  • The Northern District Court of West Virginia entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 40 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of West Virginia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Northern District Court of West Virginia.
Southern District Court of West Virginia

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 86 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of West Virginia.
  • There is one African American judge serving on the court, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of West Virginia, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is one female judge on the district court.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of West Virginia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is only one women of color serving as judges on the Southern District Court of West Virginia: Judge Irene C. Berger, who is African American.

District courts housed within the 5th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 5th Circuit:

  • Eastern District of Louisiana
  • Western District of Louisiana
  • Middle District of Louisiana
  • Northern District of Mississippi
  • Southern District of Mississippi
  • Eastern District of Texas
  • Western District of Texas
  • Northern District of Texas
  • Southern District of Texas

In examining the combined compositions of these nine district courts, white judges make up approximately 73 percent of sitting judges and 65 percent of active judges. Two of the 9 district courts—the Western District Court of Louisiana and Eastern District Court of Texas—entirely comprise white judges. African Americans comprise 11 percent of all sitting judges and 14 percent of active judges, while Hispanic judges comprise 16 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of all active judges across all nine jurisdictions. The jurisdiction includes just one Asian American judge. There are no American Indian district court judges serving within the 5th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity. The Western District Court of Texas is somewhat unique among district courts in that people of color comprise a majority of the court’s sitting and active judges. Similarly, the majority of active judges on the Southern District Court of Texas are people of color.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about 24 percent of all sitting judges and 28 percent of active judges across all nine district courts. Women make up less than one-fifth of judges serving on nearly half of all district courts within the 5th Circuit. In fact, one district court—the Southern District Court of Mississippi—does not include any female judges. Women of color make up 10 percent of sitting judges and 14 percent of active judges across all the nine district courts. However, four district courts do not have any women of color serving on the bench at all.

No judge on any district court located within the 5th Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Eastern District Court of Louisiana

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 87 percent of sitting judges and 92 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Louisiana.
  • The court includes just two African American judges, only one of whom actively serves.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Louisiana, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 47 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 42 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Louisiana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the Eastern District Court of Louisiana: Judge Nannette J. Brown, who is African American.
Western District Court of Louisiana

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Louisiana entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 17 percent of the court’s sitting and active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Louisiana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Louisiana.
Middle District Court of Louisiana

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 67 percent of sitting and active judges on the Middle District Court of Louisiana.
  • The court includes just one African American judge, comprising 33 percent of the court’s sitting and active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of Louisiana, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 33 percent of the court’s sitting and active judges.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Louisiana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Middle District Court of Louisiana.
Northern District Court of Mississippi

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 80 percent of sitting judges and 67 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Mississippi.
  • The court includes just one African American judge, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Mississippi, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 40 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 67 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Mississippi self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the Northern District Court of Mississippi: Judge Debra M. Brown, who is African American.
Southern District Court of Mississippi

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 70 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Mississippi.
  • The court includes two African American judges, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Mississippi, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are no female judges serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Mississippi self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Southern District Court of Mississippi.
Eastern District Court of Texas

Race and ethnicity

  • The Eastern District Court of Texas entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 9 percent of sitting judges and 12.5 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Texas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Texas.
Western District Court of Texas

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 47 percent of sitting judges and 38.5 percent of active judges on the Western District Court of Texas.
  • There is one African American judge serving on the Western District Court of Texas.
  • The court includes eight Hispanic judges, seven of whom actively serve, which amounts to approximately 54 percent of all active judges serving on the district court.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Texas, nor is there any judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are only two female judges on the court, amounting to 12 percent of the district court’s sitting judges and 15 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Texas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Of the two female judges serving on Western District Court of Texas, both are women of color.
Northern District Court of Texas

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 83 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Texas.
  • The court includes two African American judges, comprising 11 percent of sitting judges and 17 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There is one Asian American judge on the district court.
  • There is are no Hispanic or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Texas, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Texas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are two women of color serving on the Northern District Court of Texas: Judge Ada E. Brown, who is African American, and Judge Karen G. Scholer, who is Asian American.
Southern District Court of Texas

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 53 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Texas.
  • There are four sitting African American judges on the Southern District Court of Texas, three of whom serve in active status.
  • The court includes 10 Hispanic judges, nine of whom actively serve, which amounts to 50 percent of all active judges serving on the district court.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Texas, nor is there any judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 33 percent of the court’s sitting and active judges.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Texas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color comprise 20 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 28 percent of its active judges.

District courts housed within the 6th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 6th Circuit:

  • Eastern District Court of Kentucky
  • Western District Court of Kentucky
  • Eastern District Court of Michigan
  • Western District Court of Michigan
  • Northern District Court of Ohio
  • Southern District Court of Ohio
  • Eastern District Court of Tennessee
  • Western District Court of Tennessee
  • Middle District Court of Tennessee

In examining the combined compositions of these nine district courts, white judges make up approximately 91 percent of sitting judges and 84 percent of active judges. In examining active judges specifically, 4 of the 9 district courts entirely comprise active judges who are white. African Americans comprise just 10 percent of all sitting judges and 16 percent of active judges. There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian district court judges serving within the 6th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about 21 percent of all sitting judges and 30 percent of active judges across all nine district courts. Women of color make up only 4 percent of sitting judges and 7 percent of active judges across all the nine district courts but serve only on the Eastern District Court of Michigan and the Northern District Court of Ohio.

One judge currently serving within the 6th Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Eastern District Court of Kentucky

Race and ethnicity

  • The Eastern District Court of Kentucky entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.58
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Kentucky self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Eastern District Court of Kentucky.
Western District Court of Kentucky

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Kentucky entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 25 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 40 percent of its active judges.59
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Kentucky self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Kentucky.
Eastern District Court of Michigan

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 85 percent of sitting judges and 71 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Michigan.
  • The court includes 4 African American judges, comprising 15 percent of sitting judges and 29 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Michigan, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 27 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 36 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Eastern District Court of Michigan self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are three women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Michigan, comprising 12 percent of sitting judges and 21 percent of active judges.
Western District Court of Michigan

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Michigan entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 20 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Michigan self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Western District Court of Michigan
Northern District Court of Ohio

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 86 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Ohio.
  • The court includes two African American judges, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Ohio, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 29 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 40 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Ohio self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one women of color serving as judge on the Northern District Court of Ohio: Judge Benita Y. Pearson, who is African American.
Southern District Court of Ohio

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 92 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Ohio.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 8 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Ohio, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are just three female judges sitting on the Southern District Court of Ohio, only one of whom actively serves, comprising 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Ohio self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Southern District Court of Ohio.
Eastern District Court of Tennessee

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 90 percent of sitting judges and 100 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Tennessee.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Curtis L. Collier—but he does not actively serve.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Tennessee, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 10 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Tennessee self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Tennessee.
Western District Court of Tennessee

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 89 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Western District Court of Tennessee.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 11 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Tennessee, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Tennessee self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Western District Court of Tennessee.
Middle District Court of Tennessee

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 83 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Middle District Court of Tennessee.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 17 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of Tennessee, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Tennessee self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on Middle District Court of Tennessee.

District courts housed within the 7th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 7th Circuit:

  • Northern District Court of Illinois
  • Southern District Court of Illinois
  • Central District Court of Illinois
  • Northern District Court of Indiana
  • Southern District Court of Indiana
  • Eastern District Court of Wisconsin
  • Western District Court of Wisconsin

In examining the combined compositions of these seven district courts, white judges make up approximately 81 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges. Four of the 7 district courts entirely comprise active judges who are white. African Americans comprise 10 percent of all sitting judges and 12.5 percent of active judges, while Asian American judges make up approximately 6 percent of the courts’ sitting judges and 10 percent of all active judges. Among all the district courts housed within the 7th Circuit, there are just two sitting Hispanic judges, only one of whom actively serves. There are no American Indian district court judges serving within the 7th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise only about one-third of all sitting judges and 40 percent of active judges across all seven district courts. One district court—the Western District Court of Wisconsin—does not have any women actively serving on the bench. Conversely, the Southern District Court of Illinois is one of only a handful of district courts nationwide comprising at least majority women. In fact, both of that court’s two active judges are women. Women of color make up 10 percent of sitting judges and 15 percent of active judges across all seven district courts. However, four district courts do not have any women of color serving on the bench at all.

Two district court judges serving within the 7th Circuit self-identify as LGBTQ.

Northern District Court of Illinois

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 71 percent of sitting judges and 58 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Illinois.
  • The court includes just four sitting African American judges, three of whom actively serve.
  • There are four Asian American judges on the Northern District Court of Illinois, comprising 11 percent of the court’s active judges and 21 percent of sitting judges.
  • There are two sitting Hispanic judges on the court, only one of whom serves in active status.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Illinois, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up a little more than one-third of the court’s sitting judges and 37 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Northern District Court of Illinois self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Women of color make up 14 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 21 percent of its active judges.
Southern District Court of Illinois

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 67 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Illinois.
  • The court includes one African American judge, which amounts to 33 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 50 percent of its active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Illinois, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up a majority—67 percent—of the court’s sitting judges and all of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Southern District Court of Illinois self-identifies as LGBTQ, comprising 50 percent of the court’s active judges.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving as judge on the Southern District Court of Illinois, thereby comprising half of all actively serving judges on that court: Judge Staci M. Yandle, who is African American.
Central District Court of Illinois

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 87.5 percent of sitting judges and 100 percent of active judges on the Central District Court of Illinois.
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge Joe B. McDade—but he does not actively serve.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Central District Court of Illinois, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 25 percent of the court’s sitting judges and half of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Central District Court of Illinois self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Central District Court of Illinois.
Northern District Court of Indiana

Race and ethnicity

  • The Northern District Court of Indiana entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 40 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Indiana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Northern District Court of Indiana.
Southern District Court of Indiana

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 86 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Indiana.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Indiana, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 43 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 40 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Indiana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the Southern District Court of Indiana: Judge Tanya W. Pratt, who is African American.
Eastern District Court of Wisconsin

Race and ethnicity

  • The Eastern District Court of Wisconsin entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 25 percent of sitting and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Wisconsin self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Wisconsin.
Western District Court of Wisconsin

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Wisconsin entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Although there is one sitting female judge on the court—Judge Barbara B. Crabb—she does not actively serve.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Wisconsin self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Wisconsin.

District courts housed within the 8th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 8th Circuit:

  • Eastern District Court of Arkansas
  • Western District Court of Arkansas
  • Northern District Court of Iowa
  • Southern District Court of Iowa
  • District Court of Minnesota
  • Eastern District Court of Missouri
  • Western District Court of Missouri
  • District Court of Nebraska
  • District Court of North Dakota
  • District Court of South Dakota

In examining the combined compositions of these 10 district courts, white judges make up approximately 90 percent of sitting judges and 87 percent of active judges. The majority of district courts housed within the 8th Circuit—6 out of 10 courts—entirely comprise white judges. African Americans comprise 10 percent of all sitting judges and 13 percent of active judges. There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian district court judges serving within the 8th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise just one-quarter of all sitting judges and 28 percent of active judges across all 10 district courts. In examining active judges alone, three district courts do not have any actively serving female judges at all. Conversely, the Southern District Court of Iowa is one of only a handful of district courts nationwide comprising majority women, at least among active judges. There is just one woman of color serving on a district court in the 8th Circuit, specifically on the District Court of Minnesota.

No judges serving within the 8th Circuit self-identify as LGBTQ.

Eastern District Court of Arkansas

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 87.5 percent of sitting judges and 80 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Arkansas.
  • The court includes just one African American judge, comprising 12.5 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Arkansas, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are just two sitting female judges on the court, only one of whom actively serves, comprising 20 percent of the court’s active judges.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Arkansas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Arkansas.
Western District Court of Arkansas

Race and ethnicity

  • The Western District Court of Arkansas entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Arkansas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Arkansas.
Northern District Court of Iowa

Race and ethnicity

  • The Northern District Court of Iowa entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is one sitting female judge on the court, but she does not actively serve.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Iowa self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Northern District Court of Iowa.
Southern District Court of Iowa

Race and ethnicity

  • The Southern District Court of Iowa entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are two female judges on the court, comprising 29 percent of sitting judges and 67 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Iowa self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Southern District Court of Iowa.
District Court of Minnesota

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 86 percent of sitting judges and 83 percent of active judges on the District Court of Minnesota.
  • The court includes two African American judges, only one of whom actively serves.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Minnesota, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 36 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 50 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Minnesota self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the District Court of Minnesota: Judge Wilhelmina M. Wright, who is African American.
Eastern District Court of Missouri

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 75 percent of sitting judges and 71 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Missouri.
  • The court includes three African American judges, two of whom actively serve.60
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Missouri, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Although there are three sitting female judges on the court, only one actively serves, comprising just 14 percent of the court’s active judges.61
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Missouri self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of Missouri.
Western District Court of Missouri

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 83 percent of sitting and active judges on the Western District Court of Missouri.
  • The court includes two African American judges, only one of whom actively serves.62
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Missouri, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 25 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.63
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Missouri self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Western District Court of Missouri.
District Court of Nebraska

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Nebraska entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is one sitting female judge on the court, but she does not actively serve.
  • No judge on the District Court of Nebraska self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Nebraska.
District Court of North Dakota

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of North Dakota entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are no female judges serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the District Court of North Dakota self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of North Dakota.
District Court of South Dakota

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of South Dakota entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is one female judge on the district court, comprising 17 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the District Court of South Dakota self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of South Dakota.

District courts housed within the 9th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 9th Circuit:64

  • District Court of Alaska
  • District Court of Arizona
  • Northern District Court of California
  • Southern District Court of California
  • Central District Court of California
  • Eastern District Court of California
  • District Court of Hawaii
  • District Court of Idaho
  • District Court of Montana
  • District Court of Nevada
  • District Court of Oregon
  • Eastern District Court of Washington
  • Western District Court of Washington

In examining the combined compositions of these 13 district courts, white judges make up approximately 71 percent of sitting judges and 62 percent of active judges. Three of the 13 district courts entirely comprise white judges. African Americans comprise about 11 percent of all sitting and active judges on the district courts, while Hispanic judges comprise 9.5 percent of sitting judges and 14 percent of all active judges across all 13 jurisdictions. Asian Americans make up 7 percent of all sitting judges and 10.5 percent of all active judges. There is one American Indian district court judge and two judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity serving within the 9th Circuit. The Western District Court of Washington, District Court of Hawaii, and District Court of Nevada are somewhat unique among district courts in that people of color comprise a majority of these courts’ active judges. Similarly, the majority of sitting judges on the Eastern District Court of California are people of color.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise roughly one-quarter of all sitting judges and 30 percent of active judges across all 13 district courts. Two district courts—the District Court of Idaho and Western District Court of Washington—do not have any actively serving female judges. Conversely, the District Court of Nevada is one of only a handful of district courts nationwide comprising majority women, at least among active judges. Women of color make up 8 percent of sitting judges and 12 percent of active judges across all the 13 district courts. However, 8 of 13 district courts do not have any women of color serving on the bench at all.

Two judges on district courts within the 9th Circuit self-identify as LGBTQ.

District Court of Alaska

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Alaska entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 17 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the court.
  • No judge on the District Court of Alaska self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the District Court of Alaska.
District Court of Arizona

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 73 percent of sitting judges and 64 percent of active judges on the District Court of Arizona.
  • The court includes two African American judges, only one of whom actively serves.
  • There are two sitting Hispanic judges on the court, one of whom serves in active status.
  • There is one American Indiana judge serving on the District Court of Arizona, comprising 4.5 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 9 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the court belongs more than one race or ethnicity: Judge James A. Soto who is Hispanic and white.
  • There are no Asian American judges serving on the District Court of Arizona.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 32 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 36 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Arizona self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are two women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Arizona: Judge Rosemary Márquez, who is Latina, and Judge Diane J. Humetewa, who is American Indian.
Northern District Court of California

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 57 percent of sitting judges and half of all active judges on the Northern District Court of California.
  • The court includes four African American judges, two of whom actively serve.
  • There are three sitting Asian American judges on the court, comprising 14 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 21 percent of its active judges.
  • Two judges on the Northern District Court of California are Hispanic.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of California, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 38 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 29 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of California self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Four judges sitting on the Northern District Court of California’s are women of color, with three serving in active status: One Asian American woman, one African American woman, and one Latina.
Southern District Court of California

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 76.5 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of California.
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge John A. Houston—but he does not actively serve.
  • One judge on the Southern District Court of California is Asian American, comprising 6 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 12.5 percent of its active judges.
  • There are two sitting Hispanic judges on the court, only one of whom serves in active status.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of California, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 23.5 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 37.5 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of California self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Southern District Court of California.
Central District Court of California

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 57 percent of sitting judges and 58 percent of active judges on the Central District Court of California.
  • The court includes five African American judges, three of whom actively serve, comprising 16 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There are three sitting Asian American judges on the court, only two of whom serve in active status.
  • Four of the court’s sitting judges are Hispanic, but only three actively serve.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Central District Court of California, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 25 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 21 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Central District Court of California self-identifies as LGBTQ, comprising 4 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 5 percent of its active judges.

Women of color

  • Two judges sitting on the Central District Court of California are women of color, although just one—Judge Dolly M. Gee, an Asian American woman—serves in active status.
Eastern District Court of California

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise just 40 percent of sitting judges and 60 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of California.
  • The court includes three African American judges, one of whom actively serves, comprising 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • There is one sitting Asian American judge on the court—Judge Anthony W. Ishii—but he does not actively serve.
  • Two of the court’s sitting judges are Hispanic, but just one serves in active status.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of California, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 10 percent of sitting judges and 20 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of California self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Eastern District Court of California.
District Court of Hawaii

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 50 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges on the District Court of Hawaii.
  • The court includes three Asian American judges, two of whom actively serve.
  • One of the court’s judges belongs to more than one race or ethnicity, comprising 13 percent of the court’s sitting judges and one-quarter of its active judges. That judge—Judge Derrick K. Watson—is an Asian American/Pacific Islander.
  • There are no African American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Hawaii.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up half of the court’s sitting and active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Hawaii self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Three judges sitting on the District Court of Hawaii are women of color, although only two serve in active status, thereby comprising 50 percent of active judges there. Both judges—Judges Leslie E. Kobayashi and Jill A. Otake—are Asian American women.
District Court of Idaho

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Idaho entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are no female judges serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the District Court of Idaho self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the District Court of Idaho.
District Court of Montana

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Montana entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the District Court of Montana self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the District Court of Montana.
District Court of Nevada

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 75 percent of sitting judges and 40 percent of active judges on the District Court of Nevada.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Richard F. Boulware II—comprising 8 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 20 percent of its active judges.
  • There is one Asian American judge serving on the District Court of Nevada.
  • The court’s single Hispanic judge amounts to 8 percent of sitting judges on the district court and one-fifth of the court’s active judges.
  • There are no American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Nevada, nor is there any judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are three female judges serving on the district court, comprising 25 percent of sitting judges and 60 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the District Court of Nevada self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are two women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Nevada: Judge Miranda M. Du is Asian American, and Judge Gloria M. Navarro is Latina.
District Court of Oregon

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 82 percent of sitting judges and 83 percent of active judges on the District Court of Oregon.
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge Ancer L. Haggerty—but he does not actively serve.
  • There is one Hispanic judge serving on the District Court of Oregon, comprising 9 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 17 percent of its active judges.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Oregon, nor is there any judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 27 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the District Court of Oregon self-identifies as LGBTQ, comprising 9 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 17 percent of its active judges.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the District Court of Oregon.
Eastern District Court of Washington

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 90 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Washington.
  • The court includes one Hispanic judge—Judge Salvador Mendoza Jr.—comprising 10 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 25 percent of its active judges.
  • There are no African American, Asian American, or American Indian judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Washington, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge serving on the district court, making up just 10 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Washington self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Eastern District Court of Washington.
Western District Court of Washington

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 85 percent of sitting judges but just 33 percent of active judges on the Western District Court of Washington.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Richard A. Jones—comprising 8 percent of the court’s sitting judges and one-third of its active judges.
  • The court has one Hispanic judge: Judge Richard S. Martinez.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Washington, nor is there any judge belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Although three of the district court’s sitting judges are women, none are actively serving.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Washington self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on Western District Court of Washington.

District courts housed within the 10th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 10th Circuit:

  • District Court of Colorado
  • District Court of Kansas
  • District Court of New Mexico
  • Eastern District Court of Oklahoma
  • Western District Court of Oklahoma
  • Northern District Court of Oklahoma
  • District Court of Utah
  • District Court of Wyoming

In examining the combined compositions of these eight district courts, white judges make up approximately 82.5 percent of sitting judges and 77 percent of active judges. Five of the 8 district courts entirely comprise active judges who are white. African Americans comprise just 5 percent of all sitting judges and 6.5 percent of all active judges on the district courts, while Hispanics comprise 11 percent of sitting judges and 16 percent of all active judges across all eight jurisdictions. One American Indian Judge sits on the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma, although he does not actively serve. There are no Asian American judges serving on district courts within the 10th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise less than one-quarter of all sitting and active judges across all eight district courts. Two district courts—the Western District Court of Oklahoma and the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma—do not have any actively serving female judges. In fact, women do not comprise more than one-third of any district court located within the 10th Circuit. Women of color make up approximately 10 percent of sitting and active judges across the eight district courts. However, more than half of the eight district courts do not have any women of color actively serving on the bench at all.

No judges serving within the 10th Circuit self-identify as LGBTQ.

District Court of Colorado

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 70 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the District Court of Colorado.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Raymond P. Moore—comprising 10 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 17 percent of its active judges.
  • The court has two Hispanic judges who make up 20 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Colorado, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are two female judges on the district court, but only one serves in active status, comprising just 17 percent of the court’s active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Colorado self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the District Court of Colorado: Judge Christine M. Arguello, who is Latina.
District Court of Kansas

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 82 percent of sitting judges and 67 percent of active judges on the District Court of Kansas.
  • The court includes one African American judge, comprising 9 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 17 percent of its active judges.
  • There is one Hispanic judge on the district court.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of Kansas, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 27 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Kansas self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the District Court of Kansas: Judge Julie A. Robinson, who is African American.
District Court of New Mexico

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 56 percent of sitting judges and half of all active judges on the District Court of New Mexico.
  • The court includes four Hispanic judges, two of whom actively serve.
  • There are no African American, Asian Americans, or American Indian judges serving on the District Court of New Mexico, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Although there are three sitting female judges on the district court, only one actively serves, thereby comprising just one-quarter of all active judges on the court.
  • No judge on the District Court of New Mexico self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Of the court’s three sitting female judges, all are women of color, though only one currently serves in active status: Judge Martha A. Vázquez, who is Latina.
Eastern District Court of Oklahoma

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 67 percent of sitting judges and 100 percent of active judges on the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma.65
  • The court includes one sitting American Indian judge—Judge Frank H. Seay—but he does not actively serve.
  • There are no African American, Asian American, or Hispanic judges serving on the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are no female judges serving on the district court.
  • No judge on the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Eastern District Court of Oklahoma.
Western District Court of Oklahoma

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 92 percent of sitting judges and 100 percent of active judges on the Western District Court of Oklahoma.66
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge Vicki Miles-LaGrange—but she does not actively serve.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Western District Court of Oklahoma, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Although two of the court’s sitting judges are women, neither of them serves in active status.
  • No judge on the Western District Court of Oklahoma self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • One of the court’s sitting judges is a woman of color, but she does not actively serve.
Northern District Court of Oklahoma

Race and ethnicity

  • The Northern District Court of Oklahoma entirely comprises white judges.67

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 25 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Oklahoma self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the Northern District Court of Oklahoma.
District Court of Utah

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Utah entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are two female judges on the district court, only one of whom actively serves, thereby comprising one-quarter of the court’s active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Utah self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving as judges on the District Court of Utah.
District Court of Wyoming

Race and ethnicity

  • The District Court of Wyoming entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 33 percent of sitting judges and active judges.
  • No judge on the District Court of Wyoming self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the District Court of Wyoming.

District courts housed within the 11th Circuit

The following district courts reside within the 11th Circuit:

  • Northern District Court of Alabama
  • Southern District Court of Alabama
  • Middle District Court of Alabama
  • Northern District Court of Florida
  • Southern District Court of Florida
  • Middle District Court of Florida
  • Northern District Court of Georgia
  • Southern District Court of Georgia
  • Middle District Court of Georgia

In examining the combined compositions of these nine district courts, white judges make up approximately 77.5 percent of sitting judges and 69 percent of active judges. In examining active judges specifically, 3 of the 9 district courts entirely comprise active judges who are white. African Americans comprise 14 percent of all sitting judges and 17 percent of all active judges on the district courts, while Hispanics comprise 8 percent of sitting judges and 14 percent of all active judges across all nine jurisdictions. No Asian American or American Indian judges serve on district courts within the 11th Circuit, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise 28 percent of all sitting judges and 35 percent of all active judges across all nine district courts. Women make up at least one-quarter of every district court located within the 11th Circuit, at least among active judges. Women of color make up 7 percent of sitting judges and 12 percent of active judges across all the nine district courts. However, more than half of the nine district courts do not have any women of color serving on the bench at all.

One judge serving within the 10th Circuit self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Northern District Court of Alabama

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 92 percent of sitting judges and 87.5 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Alabama.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Abdul K. Kallon—comprising 8 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 12.5 percent of its active judges.
  • There are no Hispanic, Asian American, or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Alabama, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 46 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 37.5 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Alabama self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Northern District Court of Alabama.
Southern District Court of Alabama

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 83 percent of sitting judges and 67 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Alabama.
  • The court includes one African American judge—Judge Terry F. Moorer—comprising 17 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 33 percent of its active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Alabama, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There are two female judges on the district court, only one of whom actively serves.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Alabama self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Southern District Court of Alabama.
Middle District Court of Alabama

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 80 percent of sitting judges and all of the active judges on the Middle District Court of Alabama.
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge Myron H. Thompson—but he does not actively serve.
  • There are no Asian Americans, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of Alabama, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and half of all active judges.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Alabama self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Middle District Court of Alabama.
Northern District Court of Florida

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 90 percent of sitting judges and all of the active judges on the Northern District Court of Florida.
  • The court includes one sitting African American judge—Judge Stephan P. Mickle—but he does not actively serve.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Florida, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 10 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Florida self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Northern District Court of Florida.
Southern District Court of Florida

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 63 percent of sitting judges and 50 percent of active judges on the Southern District Court of Florida.
  • The court includes four African American judges, three of whom actively serve.
  • There are six Hispanic judges on the district court, five of whom actively serve, comprising 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 31 percent of the its active judges.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Southern District Court of Florida, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 30 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 37.5 percent of its active judges.
  • One judge on the Southern District Court of Florida self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • Two of the court’s judges are women of color: Judge Marcia G. Cooke is African American, and Judge Cecilia M. Altonaga is Latina.
Middle District Court of Florida

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 76 percent of sitting judges and 57 percent of active judges on the Middle District Court of Florida.
  • The court includes four African American judges, three of whom actively serve.
  • There are three Hispanic judges on the district court, comprising 10 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 21 percent of the its active judges.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of Florida, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 34.5 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 43 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Florida self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are four women of color serving as judges on the Middle District Court of Florida, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 29 percent of active judges on the bench.
Northern District Court of Georgia

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 78 percent of sitting judges and 73 percent of active judges on the Northern District Court of Georgia.
  • The court includes three African American judges, two of whom actively serve, comprising 18 percent of the court’s active judges.
  • The court has one Hispanic judge.
  • There are no Asian American or American Indian judges serving on the Northern District Court of Georgia, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • Female judges make up 22 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 27 percent of its active judges.
  • No judge on the Northern District Court of Georgia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving on the Northern District Court of Georgia: Judge Eleanor L. Ross, who is African American.
Southern District Court of Georgia

Race and ethnicity

  • The Southern District Court of Georgia entirely comprises white judges.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 20 percent of sitting judges and 33 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Southern District Court of Georgia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There are no women of color serving on the Southern District Court of Georgia.
Middle District Court of Georgia

Race and ethnicity

  • Whites comprise 71 percent of sitting judges and 75 percent of active judges on the Middle District Court of Georgia.
  • The court includes two African American judges, only one of whom actively serves, comprising 25 percent of the court’s active judges.
  • There are no Asian American, Hispanic, or American Indian judges serving on the Middle District Court of Georgia, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Gender and sexual orientation

  • There is just one female judge on the district court, comprising 14 percent of sitting judges and 25 percent of active judges on the bench.
  • No judge on the Middle District Court of Georgia self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Women of color

  • There is one woman of color serving as judge on the Middle District Court of Georgia: Judge Leslie J. Abrams, who is African American.

District court housed within the D.C. Circuit

There is only one district court housed within the D.C. Circuit: The District of Columbia District Court.

In examining that court’s racial and ethnic composition, white judges make up approximately 67 percent of the district court’s sitting judges and 60 percent of its active judges. The court includes seven sitting African American judges, four of whom actively serve, comprising 27 percent of the court’s active judges. Additionally, the district court includes one Asian American judge and one Hispanic judge, each of whom makes up 4 percent of the court’s sitting judges and 7 percent of its active judges. No American Indian judges serve on the court, nor are there any judges belonging to more than one race or ethnicity.

Regarding gender, female judges comprise 37 percent of all sitting judges and 40 percent of all active judges on the bench. Two of the court’s judges are women of color: Judges Tanya S. Chutkan and Ketanji B. Jackson are both African American women.

No judge serving on the District of Columbia District Court self-identifies as LGBTQ.

Conclusion

A prior report by the Center for American Progress demonstrated how judges belonging to different races and ethnicities; gender identities and sexual orientations; and even educational and professional backgrounds add immense value to the development of federal common law that is fairer and more humane.68 In light of this, the lack of women, people of color, and LGBTQ judges overseeing cases on the lower federal courts, as illustrated within this report, is cause for significant concern. Although the current administration has failed to prioritize diversifying the federal bench, future administrations and Congress can and should make appointing more judges from diverse groups and backgrounds a priority going forward. Until more judges from historically underrepresented groups are appointed to federal courts, litigants and the public will continue to have questions about the federal judiciary’s legitimacy and the soundness of the decisions it renders.

Endnotes

  1. U.S. Courts, “Supreme Court Procedures,” available at https://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/supreme-1 (last accessed November 2019).
  2. Danielle Root, Jake Faleschini, and Grace Oyenubi, “Building a More Inclusive Federal Judiciary” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2019), available at https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/courts/reports/2019/10/03/475359/building-inclusive-federal-judiciary/.
  3. Ibid.
  4. For instance, in November 2016, a panel of three white judges on the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals—including now-Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch—ruled in Estate of Clayton Lockett v. Fallin that Oklahoma’s botched execution of African American death row inmate Clayton Lockett did not constitute cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment. According to those judges, the botched procedure, which left Clayton in agonizing pain for 43 minutes, amounted to nothing more than an “innocent misadventure.” More recently, in August 2019 in Telescope Media Group v. Lucero, 2 of 3 judges on an 8th Circuit Court panel gave the court’s stamp of approval to a Minnesota-based videography company’s practice of discriminating against same-sex couples. The 8th Circuit does not include any judges who self-identify as LGBTQ. As noted by Judge Jane L. Kelley, the panel’s dissenting judge: “In this country’s long and difficult journey to combat all forms of discrimination, the court’s ruling represents a major step backward.” See Estate of Clayton Lockett v. Fallin, No. 15-6134 (10th Cir., November 15, 2016), available at https://www.ca10.uscourts.gov/opinions/15/15-6134.pdf; Samantha Schmidt, “Botched Okla. Execution that took 43 minutes not cruel and inhumane, court rules,” The Washington Post, November 17, 2016, available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2016/11/17/innocent-misadventure-botched-43-minute-okla-execution-not-cruel-and-inhumane-appeals-court-rules/; Joe Harris, “Videographers Opposed to Gay Weddings Prevail at 8th Circuit,” Courthouse News Service, August 23, 2019, available at https://www.courthousenews.com/videographers-opposed-to-gay-weddings-prevail-at-8th-circuit/; Telescope Media Group v. Lucero, No. 17-3352 (8th Cir., August 23, 2019), available at https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/MN-Videographers-ca8.pdf.
  5. For example, in June Medical Services LLC v. Gee, one of the two circuit court judges on the judicial panel who upheld Louisiana’s law requiring physicians who perform abortions to have admitting privileges at a local hospital—a decision that has severe consequences for women seeking access to reproductive health care—was a woman, Judge Edith B. Clement. On the other hand, the lone dissenting judge, Judge Patrick E. Higginbotham, was a white man. See June Medical Services L.L.C. v. Gee, No. 17-30397 (5th Cir., 2018), available at https://cases.justia.com/federal/appellate-courts/ca5/17-30397/17-30397-2018-09-26.pdf?ts=1538004615; Federal Judicial Center, “Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present: Advanced Search Criteria,” available at https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/search/advanced-search (last accessed November 2019).
  6. Chris Johnson, “SHOCKER: Senate confirms Trump nominee as highest-ranking out gay judge,” Washington Blade, December 10, 2019, available at https://www.washingtonblade.com/2019/12/10/shocker-senate-confirms-trump-nominee-as-highest-ranking-out-gay-judge/; Joe Jurado, “Deborah Batts, The Nation’s First Openly LGBTQ Federal Judge, Has Died at 72,” The Root, February 4, 2020, available at https://www.theroot.com/deborah-batts-the-nation-first-openly-lgbtq-federal-ju-1841458801.
  7. Minority Corporate Counsel Association, “LGBT Article III Judges,” available at https://www.mcca.com/resources/reports/federal-judiciary/lgbt-judges/ (last accessed January 2020); Chris Johnson, “Mary Rowland is first LGBT Trump judicial nominee confirmed by the Senate,” Washington Blade, August 5, 2019, available at https://www.washingtonblade.com/2019/08/05/mary-rowland-is-first-lgbt-trump-judicial-nominee-confirmed-by-senate/; Federal Judicial Center, “Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present: Advanced Search Criteria.”
  8. Federal Judicial Center, “Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present: Advanced Search Criteria.”
  9. Minority Corporate Counsel Association, “LGBT Article III Judges.”
  10. Among sitting judges, 54 of 91 district courts have no sitting women of color.
  11. Federal Judicial Center, “Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present: Advanced Search Criteria.”
  12. United States Courts, “Federal Judicial Caseload Statistics 2017,” available at https://www.uscourts.gov/statistics-reports/federal-judicial-caseload-statistics-2017 (last accessed January 2020).
  13. These two courts are the 7th and Federal circuits.
  14. These seven courts are the 1st Circuit, 3rd Circuit, 4th Circuit, 7th Circuit, 8th Circuit, 10th Circuit, and 11th Circuit.
  15. These five courts are the 5th Circuit, 6th Circuit, 7th Circuit, 8th Circuit, and D.C. Circuit.
  16. U.S. Census Bureau, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018,” available at, https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk (last accessed December 2019).
  17. Ibid.
  18. Among active judges, there are only four African American women serving as judges, along with four Latinas.
  19. Frank Newport, “In U.S., Estimate of LGBT Population Rises to 4.5%,” Gallup, May 22, 2018, available at https://news.gallup.com/poll/234863/estimate-lgbt-population-rises.aspx.
  20. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts,” available at https://www.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/u.s._federal_courts_circuit_map_1.pdf (last accessed December 2019).
  21. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018”; U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates (Puerto Rico),” available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=CF (last accessed December 2019).
  22. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  23. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  24. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  25. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018”; CIA, “The World Factbook,” available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ (last accessed December 2019).
  26. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  27. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  28. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  29. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  30. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  31. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  32. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  33. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  34. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  35. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  36. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  37. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018”; World Bank Group, “Population, female (% of total population),” available at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS (last accessed December 2019); CIA, “The World Factbook.”
  38. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  39. U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018.”
  40. U.S. Courts, “Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts.”
  41. Legal Progress, “Why the D.C. Circuit Matters” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2013), available at https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Why-the-D.C.-Circuit-Matters1.pdf.
  42. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, “Court Jurisdiction,” available at http://www.cafc.uscourts.gov/the-court/court-jurisdiction (last accessed November 2019).
  43. Minority Corporate Counsel Association, “LGBT Article III Judges.”
  44. See U.S. Courts, “Federal Judicial Caseload Statistics 2017.”
  45. Ibid.
  46. These five courts are the Western District Court of North Carolina, Southern District Court of Mississippi, District Court of North Dakota, District Court of Idaho, and Eastern District Court of Oklahoma.
  47. These 10 courts are the Western District Court of North Carolina, Southern District Court of Mississippi, Western District Court of Wisconsin, Northern District Court of Iowa, District Court of Nebraska, District Court of North Dakota, District Court of Idaho, Western District Court of Washington, Eastern District Court of Oklahoma, and Western District Court of Oklahoma.
  48. These 15 courts are the Southern District Court of Illinois, Eastern District Court of New York, Northern District Court of Mississippi, Southern District Court of Iowa, District Court of Nevada, Western District Court of Pennsylvania, District Court of New Jersey, Northern District Court of New York, District Court of Vermont, Middle District Court of North Carolina, Central District Court of Illinois, District Court of Minnesota, District Court of Alaska, District Court of Hawaii, and Middle District Court of Alabama.
  49. These three courts are the Southern District Court of Illinois, Eastern District Court of New York, and District Court of Hawaii.
  50. These four courts are the District Court of Puerto Rico, Eastern District Court of California, Western District Court of Texas, and District Court of Hawaii.
  51. These 13 courts are the District Court of Puerto Rico, Western District Court of Texas, Southern District Court of Texas, District Court of Hawaii, Western District Court of Washington, District Court of Nevada, Eastern District Court of New York, Southern District Court of Mississippi, Southern District Court of Illinois, Northern District Court of California, District Court of Colorado, District Court of New Mexico, and Southern District Court of Florida.
  52. Among active judges, Asian American judges are absent from 79 of 91 district courts. Among sitting judges, Asian American judges are absent from 78 district courts.
  53. There are no sitting Asian American judges on any district court located within the 1st, 6th, 8th, 10th, or 11th circuits. There are no actively serving Asian American judges located within the 1st, 6th, 8th, 10th, or 11th circuits.
  54. These two courts are the District Court of Arizona and Eastern District Court of Oklahoma.
  55. These two courts are the Southern District Court of Illinois and District Court of Hawaii.
  56. This court is the Southern District Court of Illinois.
  57. The District Court for the U.S. Virgin Islands is also housed under the 3rd Circuit but is not an Article III court as recognized by the U.S. Constitution and is therefore not included in this analysis.
  58. One white female judge, Judge Claria H. Boom, was awarded joint appointment in the Western District Court and Eastern District Court of Kentucky. Because she serves jointly and holds offices in both district courts, she is counted as a judge in both the Eastern and Western district courts for the purposes of this report and the authors’ demographic analysis. The authors have adjusted the total number of district judges and female district judges serving within the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals to avoid double-counting Judge Boom. U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky, “District Judges,” available at http://www.kyed.uscourts.gov/?q=district-judges (last accessed January 2020); U.S. District Court for the Western District Court of Kentucky, “District Judge Claria H. Boom,” available at https://www.kywd.uscourts.gov/district-judge-claria-h-boom (last accessed January 2020).
  59. Ibid.
  60. Three district court judges were awarded joint appointments to the Eastern District Court and Western District Court of Missouri: one actively serving African American man (Judge Brian C. Wimes); one actively serving white man (Chief Judge Rodney W. Sippel); and one senior-status white woman (Judge Nanette K. Laughrey). Despite their joint appointments, the African American man and white woman only serve and keep office in the Western District Court of Missouri, while the white man serves and keeps office only in the Eastern District Court of Missouri. The Federal Judicial Center database does not account for where each individual judge hears cases and keeps their offices and instead double-counts the three judges as serving under both district courts. Data in the body of this report and in the Appendix tables 5 to 8 have been corrected and supplemented to correct for the Federal Judicial Center’s error and reflect where each of the three judges actually serves. U.S. Courts Western District of Missouri, “Judges,” available at https://www.mow.uscourts.gov/district/judges (last accessed January 2020); U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri, “Judges’ Contact Information and Requirements,” available at https://www.moed.uscourts.gov/judges-contact-information-and-requirements (last accessed January 2020).
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. The district courts for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands are also housed under the 9th Circuit but are not Article III courts as defined by the U.S. Constitution and are therefore not included in this analysis.
  65. One district judge currently serving in senior status, Judge James H. Payne, was awarded triple simultaneous appointment to the Western, Eastern, and Northern district courts of Oklahoma. However, Judge Payne kept offices in and served as Chief Judge for the Eastern District of Oklahoma. Therefore, for the purposes of this report, the authors only count Judge Payne as a sitting judge in the Eastern District, even though the Federal Judicial Center website includes him in their count for the Western District and Northern District of Oklahoma as well. U.S. Courts, “James H. Payne,” available at https://www.uscourts.gov/judicial-milestones/james-h-payne (last accessed January 2020).
  66. Ibid.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Root, Faleschini, and Oyenubi, “Building a More Inclusive Federal Judiciary.”

Share this: